Fluorine Electron Configuration with Full Orbital Diagram

Fluorine electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p5. The symbol for fluorine is F. The electron configuration of fluorine shows that the period of fluorine is 2 and fluorine is an p-block element. Fluorine electron configuration with an orbital diagram is the main topic of this article.

The Ninth element in the periodic table is fluorine. The atomic number of fluorine is 9 and the total number of electrons in the fluorine atom is 9. These electrons are arranged according to specific rules of different orbits. The position of the electrons in different energy levels of the atom and the orbital in a certain order is called electron configuration.

Electron configuration is done in 2 ways of all the elements of the periodic table. That’s why fluorine electron configuration can be done in 2 ways.

  1. Electron configuration via orbit.
  2. Electron configuration via orbital.

Fluorine electron configuration via orbit

Scientist  Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit. These orbits are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

Fluorine Electron Configuration

K is the name of the first orbit, L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit. The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now,
n = 1 for K orbit.
The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.

For L orbit, n = 2.
The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.

n=3 for M orbit.
The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 3= 18 electrons.

n=4 for N orbit.
The maximum electron holding capacity in N orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 32 electrons.

The atomic number is the number of electrons in that element. The atomic number of fluorine is 9. That is, the number of electrons in fluorine is 9.

Therefore, the maximum electron holding capacity in the first orbit is 2. And the maximum electron holding capacity in the second orbit is 8. In the electron configuration of fluorine, The total number of electrons in a fluorine atom is 9.

Therefore, the two electrons of fluorine will be in the first orbit. And the other seven electrons will be in the second orbit. The order of electron configuration of fluorine atom through orbits is 2, 7. Therefore, fluorine has electrons per shell 2, 7.

The electron configuration of Fluorine atom through orbital

Atomic energy levels are subdivided into sub-energy levels. These sub-energy levels are called orbital. The sub energy levels are expressed by ‘l’. The value of ‘l’ is from 0 to (n – 1). The sub-energy levels are known as s, p, d, f.

Determining the value of ‘l’ for different energy levels is-

If n = 1,
(n – 1) = (1–1) = 0
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 1; And the orbital is 1 s.

If n = 2,
(n – 1) = (2–1) = 1.
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 2; And the orbital is 2s, 2p.

If n = 3,
(n – 1) = (3–1) = 2.
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 3; And the orbital is 3s, 3p, 3d.

If n = 4,
(n – 1) = (4–1) = 3
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 4; And the orbital is 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f.

If n = 5,
(n – 1) = (n – 5) = 4.

Therefore, l = 0,1,2,3,4. The number of orbitals will be 5 but 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f in these four orbitals it is possible to arrange the electrons of all the elements of the periodic table. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

fluorine electron configuration
Fluorine Electron Configuration

Fluorine electron configuration in the Aufbau principle

The German physicist Aufbau first proposed the idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level. These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’. The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14. 

The Aufbau electron configuration method is 1 s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d. The fluorine electron configuration in the Aufbau principle is 1s2 2s2 2p5.

Electron configuration of Fluorine in the Hund principle

Another method of electron configuration is the Hund principle. The German physicist Friedrich Hund provided a guideline for the entry of electrons into different orbitals of equal power. Which is known as the Hund principle. The Hund principle is that when electrons enter the orbitals of equal power, the electrons will randomly enter the orbital as long as the orbital is empty. And the spin of these unpaired electrons will be one-sided. This principle applies to- p, d, f orbitals. The s-orbital does not support the Hund principle.

Normally fluorine electron configuration is F(9) = 1s2 2s2 2p5. And in Hund’s principle, the electron configuration of fluorine is 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py2 2pz1. The electron configuration of fluorine in excited state is F*(9) = 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py2 2pz1.

hund principle in fluorine
Hund Principle in Fluorine

The last orbital of fluorine is p and unpaired electrons exist in its last p-orbital. And, p-orbital has 5 electrons. 1 electron exists in the last (2pz) sub-orbital. Whose spin is one-way. So, The fluorine atom supports Hund principle.

Determination of group and period through the fluorine electron configuration

The fluorine electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p5. The last orbit of an element is the period of that element. The electron configuration of fluorine atom shows that the last orbit of the fluorine atom is 2(2s 2p). So, the period of fluorine is 2.

On the other hand, the number of electrons present in the last orbit of an element is the number of groups in that element. But in the case of p-block elements, group diagnosis is different. To determine the group of p-block elements, the group has to be determined by adding 10 to the total number of electrons in the last orbit.

The total number of electrons in the last orbit of the fluorine atom is 7. That is, the group number of fluorine is 7 + 10 = 17. Therefore, we can say that the period of the fluorine element is 2 and the group is 17.

Determining the block of fluorine by electron configuration

The elements in the periodic table are divided into 4 blocks based on the electron configuration of the element. The block of elements is determined based on the electron configuration of the element. If the last electron enters the p-orbital after the electron configuration of the element, then that element is called the p-block element.

The fluorine electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p5. The electron configuration of fluorine(F) shows that the last electron of fluorine enters the p-orbital. Therefore, fluorine is the p-block element.

Determination of the valency (valence) and valence electrons of fluorine

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency(valence) .

The number of unpaired electrons in the last orbit of an element is the valency(valence) of that element. The electron configuration of fluorine in excited state is F*(9) = 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py2 2pz1. The electron configuration of fluorine(F) shows that there are 1 unpaired electrons in the last orbit of fluorine. Therefore, the valency(valence) of the fluorine(F) is 1.

valence electrons of fluorine
Valence Electrons of Fluorine

Again, the number of electrons in the last orbit of an element, the number of those electrons is the valence electrons of that element. In the electron configuration for fluorine, we see that 7 electrons exist in the last orbit of the fluorine. Therefore, the valence electrons of the fluorine are 7. Finally, we can say that the valency (valence) of the fluorine is 1, and the valence electrons of the fluorine are 7.

Ionic properties of fluorine atoms

The electron configuration of fluorine atom is 1s2 2s2 2p5. Fluorine is an anion element. When a charge-neutral atom receives an electron and turns it into a negative ion, it is called an anion. The last orbit of an fluorine atom has 7 electrons. The fluorine atom takes 1 electrons to fill the octave and become an anion.

F + e → F

Fluorine atoms take on electrons and turn into negative ions. The electron configuration of fluorine ions(F) is 1s2 2s2 2p6. Therefore, Fluorine is an anion element.

Fluorine is a halogen element

The elements in group-17 of the periodic table are called halogen elements. One of the elements in group-17 of the periodic table is fluorine. And the first element in group-17 is fluorine. Therefore, fluorine is a halogen element.

Bond formation of Fluorine atoms

Fluorine atoms form covalent bonds. Fluorine and hydrogen atoms form FH compound through covalent bonds by sharing electrons. The hydrogen and fluorine atomic electron configurations are-

The hydrogen electron configuration is 1s1.
And fluorine electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p5.

hf compound

The electron configuration of hydrogen shows that the hydrogen atom has 1 electron. The hydrogen atom wants to complete its first orbit by receiving one more electron. Again, the electron configuration of the fluorine atom shows that the last orbit of the fluorine atom has 7 electrons. The fluorine atom wants to fill the octave by taking 1 electron in its last orbit. Therefore, hydrogen and fluorine atoms share their electrons and fill the last orbit. Hydrogen and fluorine share electrons to form covalent bonds and produce HF compounds.

Interhalogen reaction of chlorine

The compound formed by the reaction of two halogen elements at the required heat and pressure is called an interhalogen compound. The fluorine (F) atom is a heavy halogen. Fluorine atoms react with bromine (Br), chlorine (Cl), iodine (I) to form compounds BrF, ClF, ClF3, BrF3, BrF5, IF3, IF5, IF7. Of the halogen atoms, fluorine (F) forms the most interhalogen compound.

Cl2 + F2 (250°C) → 2ClF
Cl2 + 3F2 (250°C) → 2ClF3
I2 + 5F2 → 2IF5
IF5 + F2 (270°C) → IF7
Br2 + F2 → 2BrF

Formation of Fluorine compound

Fluorine is a highly active and electrically negative element. It is a powerful oxidation element. Fluorine combines with various elements to form compounds.

Reaction of fluorine atom with group-1 element

Fluorine atoms react with hydrogen to form fluoride compounds.
H2 + F2 → 2HF
Here, HF is water soluble. In contact with water, the H – F bond is broken down into H+ ions. Which combines with water to produce H3O+ ions.
HF + H2O → H3O+ + F

Again, fluorine atoms react with group-1 elements to form halide compounds. Group-1 elements are Lithium (Li), Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Rubidium (Rb), Cesium (Cs).
2Li + F2 → 2LiF
2Na + F2 → 2NaF
2K + F2 → 2KF
2Rb + F2 → 2RbF
2Cs + F2 → 2CsF

Reaction of fluorine atom with element of group-2

Group-2 elements are Beryllium (Be), Magnesium (Mg), Calcium (Ca), Strontium (Sr), Barium (Ba). Fluorine atoms react with group-2 elements to form compounds.
Be + F2 → BeF2
Mg + F2 → MgF2
Ca + F2 → CaF2
Sr + F2 → SrF2
Ba + F2 → BaF2

Reaction of fluorine atom with element of group-13

Fluorine forms halide compounds at high temperatures with 13-group elements. Group 13 elements are boron (B), aluminum (Al), gallium (Ga), indium (In), thallium (Tl).

2B + 3F2 → 2BF3
2Al + 3F2 → 2AlF3
2Ga + 3F2 → 2GaF3

Reaction of Fluorine Atoms with Group-15 Elements

Group-15 elements are nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), arsenic (As), antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), and moscovium (Mc). Fluorine atoms react with Group-15 elements to form tetrachloride and pentachloride compounds.

N2 + 3F2 → 2NF3
P4 + F2 → 4PF3
P4 + 10F2 → 4PF5

The nitrogen atom alone does not form the Penta halide compound. Because nitrogen atoms do not have d-orbitals.

The reaction of fluorine atom with inert gas Xenon (Xe )

In the presence of nickel, xenon, and fluorine in a 1: 2 volume ratio are heated to 400 ° C to produce xenon difluoride after a long time.
Xe + F2 (Ni) → XeF2

Again, xenon and fluorine gas are mixed in a 1: 2 volume ratio to produce xenon tetrafluoride at certain pressures and temperatures.
Xe + 2F → XeF4

Properties of Fluorine Atoms

  • The atomic number of fluorine atoms is 9. The atomic number of an element is the number of electrons and protons in that element. That is, the number of electrons and protons in the fluorine atom is 9.
  • The active atomic mass of the fluorine atom is 18.9984.
  • Fluorine is a halogen element.
  • The valency(valence) of a Fluorine atom is 1 and the valence electrons of a fluorine atom are 7.
  • Fluorine atoms are the 2nd period of the periodic table and an element of the 17-group.
  • Fluorine is an anion element.
  • Fluorine atoms form covalent bonds.
  • The electron configuration of fluorine ends in a p-orbital. Therefore, it is a p-block element.
  • The melting point of a fluorine atom is 53.48 K ​(−219.67 °C, ​−363.41 °F) and the boiling point is 85.03 K ​(−188.11 °C, ​−306.60 °F).
  • The value electronegativity of fluorine atoms is 3.98 (Pauling scale).
  • The oxidation state of fluorine is –1.
  • The atomic radius of a fluorine atom is 42pm.
  • Fluorine atom van der Waals radius is 135 pm.
  • The ionic radius of the fluorine atom is 136pm.
  • Ionization energies of fluorine atoms are 1st: 1681 kJ/mol, 2nd: 3374 kJ/mol, 3rd: 6147 kJ/mol.
  • The electron addiction of fluorine atoms is –329kj/mol.
  • The covalent radius of the fluorine atom is 64 pm.
  • Fluorine is thermally conductive and electricity is slightly conductive.
  • Fluorine is a very active and electrically negative element.
  • Fluorine is a p-block element. Therefore, the ionization energy is greater than the ionization energy of the s-block element.

Conclusion of Fluorine Electron configuration

The atomic number of fluorine is 9. The atomic number of an element is the number of electrons in that element. Therefore, the number of electrons in the fluorine is 9. Fluorine electron configuration is F(9) = 1s2 2s2 2p5 .  The main topic of this article is the fluorine electron configuration with orbital diagrams. fluorine is the 2nd period of the periodic table and the group-17 element. This article discusses the electron configuration of fluorine atoms, period-groups, valency(valence) and valence electrons, compound formation, Covalent properties of fluorine and properties of the fluorine atom.

FAQ of Fluorine Electron configuration

What is the electron configuration of Fluorine?
Ans: Fluorine Electron configuration is F(9) = 1s2 2s2 2p5.

What is the valence electron configuration for the Fluorine atom?
Ans: 7 valence electrons.

How can Fluorine become stable electron configuration?
AnsThe last orbit of a Fluorine atom has 7 electrons. The fluorine atom takes 1 electrons to fill the octave and become stable. The electron configuration of fluorine ions(F) is 1s2 2s2 2p6.

How many valence electron in Fluorine?
Ans: 7 valence electrons.

What is the symbol for fluorine?
Ans: The symbol for fluorine is ‘F’.

References

  1.  Wikipedia
  2. Meija, Juris; et al. (2016). “Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)”. Pure and Applied Chemistry88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.

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