How many valence electrons does fluorine(F) have?

Fluorine is a halogen element and its symbol is ‘F’. Fluorine participates in the formation of bonds through valence electrons. This article discusses in detail the valence electrons of fluorine.

What are the valence electrons of fluorine(F)?

Fluorine(F) is a non-metallic element. Fluorine is an element of group-17. The valence electron is the total number of electrons in the last orbit(shell). The total number of electrons in the last shell after the electron configuration of fluorine is called the valence electrons of fluorine.

The valence electrons determine the properties of the element and participate in the formation of bonds. The ninth element in the periodic table is fluorine. That is, the atom of the fluorine element has a total of nine electrons.

valence electrons of fluorine
Valence electrons of fluorine

The electron configuration of fluorine shows that the last shell(orbit) of fluorine has a total of seven electrons. That is, we can easily say that the valence electrons of fluorine are seven. There is an article on this site detailing the electron configuration of fluorine, you can read it if you want.

How many electrons and protons does the fluorine(F) atom have?

The nucleus is located in the center of the atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The atomic number of fluorine(F) is 9. The atomic number is the number of protons.

That is, the number of protons in the fluorine(F) is 9. Electrons equal to protons are located in a circular shell(orbit) outside the nucleus. That is, fluorine(F) atoms have a total of nine electrons.

How to determine the valence electron of fluorine(F)?

Now we will know how to easily determine the valence electrons of fluorine(F). The valence electron has to be determined by following a few steps. The electron configuration is one of them. It is not possible to determine the valence electron without electron configuration.

Knowing the electron configuration in the right way, it is very easy to determine the valence electrons of all the elements. There is an article published on this site detailing the electron configuration, you can read it if you want. However, this article briefly discusses electron configuration.

Scientist Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit( shell). These orbits(shell) are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit(shell), L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit(shell). The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now,

  • n = 1 for K orbit. The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.
  • For L orbit, n = 2. The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.
electron configuration
Electron Configuration

In addition to this method, electron configuration can be done through sub-orbits. The German physicist Aufbau first proposed an idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level.

These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’. The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

However, valence electrons can be easily identified by arranging electrons according to the Bohr principle. Now we will learn how to determine the valence electrons of fluorine(F).

Step-1: Determining the total number of electrons

First we need to know the total number of electrons in the fluorine(F) atom. To know the number of electrons, you need to know the number of protons in fluorine. And to know the number of protons, you need to know the atomic number of the fluorine element.

To know the atomic number we need to take the help of a periodic table. It is necessary to know the atomic number of fluorine(F) elements from the periodic table. The atomic number is the number of protons. And electrons equal to protons are located outside the nucleus.

Position of fluorine(F) in the periodic table
Position of fluorine(F) in the periodic table

That is, we can finally say that there are electrons equal to the atomic number in the fluorine(F) atom. From the periodic table, we see that the atomic number of fluorine(F) is 9. That is, a fluorine(F) atom has a total of nine electrons.

Step-2: Need to do electron configuration

Step 2 is very important. In this step, the electrons of fluorine(F) have to be arranged. We know that fluorine atoms have a total of nine electrons. The electron configuration of fluorine(F) shows that there are two electrons in the K shell and seven in the L shell.

That is, the first shell(orbit) of fluorine has two and the second shell has seven electrons. The electron configuration of fluorine(F) through the sub-orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p5.

Fluorine Electron Configuration
Fluorine Electron Configuration

Step-3: Determining the valence shell(orbit) and calculate total electrons

The third step is to diagnose the valence shell(orbit). The last shell after the electron configuration is called the valence shell(orbit). The total number of electrons in a valence shell is called a valence electron.

The electron configuration of fluorine(F) shows that the last shell(orbit) of fluorine has seven( 2s2 2p5) electrons. Therefore, the valence electrons of fluorine(F) are seven. In this way, the valence electrons of all the elements can be determined.

Determination of the valency of fluorine(F)

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency(valence). The number of unpaired electrons in the last orbit of an element is the valency(valence) of that element.

valence electrons of fluorine
Valency and valence electrons of fluorine(F)

The electron configuration of fluorine in excited state is F*(9) = 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py2 2pz1. The electron configuration of fluorine(F) shows that there is one unpaired electron in the last orbit of fluorine. Therefore, the valency(valence) of the fluorine(F) is 1.

How many valence electrons does fluorine ion(F) have?

After the electron configuration, the last shell of the fluorine(F) atom has seven electrons. After arranging the electrons, it is seen that the last shell(orbit) of the fluorine atom has seven electrons. In this case, the valence electrons of fluorine(F) are seven.

We know the details about this. The elements that have 5, 6, or seven electrons in the last shell(orbit) receive the electrons in the last shell(orbit) during bond formation. The elements that receive electrons and form bonds are called anions. That is, fluorine(F) is an anion element.

F + e → F

During the formation of fluorine(F) bonds, the last shell receives electrons and turns them into fluorine ions. The electron configuration of fluorine(F) ions is 1s2 2s2 2p6. The electron configuration of fluorine(F) ions shows that fluorine ions have two shells(orbit) and the second shell has eight electrons.

The electron configuration shows that the fluorine ion has acquired the electron configuration of neon. That is, in this case, the valence(valency) of fluorine ions is -1. Since the last shell of fluorine ion has eight electrons, the valence electrons of fluorine ion are eight.

Compound formation of fluorine(F) by valence electrons

Fluorine participates in the formation of bonds through its valence electrons. We know that the valence electrons in fluorine(F) are seven. This valence electron participates in the formation of bonds with atoms of other elements. Fluorine atoms form bonds by sharing electrons with hydrogen atoms.

hf compound
HF compound

The electron configuration of hydrogen shows that hydrogen has only one electron. One hydrogen(H) atom and one fluorine(F) atom make HF compounds by sharing electrons. As a result, the fluorine atom completes its octave and acquires the electron configuration of neon.

On the other hand, hydrogen acquires the electron configuration of helium. Therefore, one fluorine atom shares electrons with one hydrogen atom to form the HF compound through covalent bonding.

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