Beryllium Electron Configuration and Full Orbital Diagram

Beryllium electron configuration is 1s2 2s2. The electron configuration of beryllium shows that beryllium is alkaline soil metal. Beryllium is the 2nd period of the periodic table and the 2nd group element.

The valency and valence electrons of beryllium are 2. This article gives an idea about the electron configuration of beryllium, the period and groups of beryllium, the valency and valence electrons of beryllium, application of different principles.

The fourth element in the periodic table is beryllium. The total number of electrons in beryllium is four. These electrons are arranged according to specific rules of different orbits. The position of the electrons in different energy levels of the atom and the orbital in a certain order is called electron configuration.

Electron configuration is done in 2 ways of all the elements of the periodic table. That’s why, Beryllium electron configuration can be done in 2 ways.

  1. Electron configuration via orbit.
  2. Electron configuration via orbital.

Electron configuration through orbitals follows different principles. For example, the Aufbau principle, Hund’s principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle.

Beryllium electron configuration through orbit

Scientist  Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit. These orbits are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit, L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit. The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now,
n = 1 for K orbit.
The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.

For L orbit, n = 2.
The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons .

n=3 for M orbit.
The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 18 electrons.

n=4 for N orbit.
The maximum electron holding capacity in N orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 32 electrons.

The atomic number is the number of electrons in that element. The atomic number of beryllium is 4. That is, the number of electrons in beryllium is 4. The electron holding capacity of each orbit of the element is 2n2. The serial number of the orbit.[ n = 1,2,3,4. . . ]

Therefore, the maximum electron holding capacity in the first orbit is 2. And the maximum electron holding capacity in the second orbit is 8. In the electron configuration of beryllium, The total number of electrons in a beryllium atom is 4. We know that a maximum of two electrons can be located in orbit number 1.

Therefore, the two electrons of beryllium will be in the first orbit. And the other two electrons will be in the second orbit. The order of electron configuration of beryllium atoms through orbits is 2, 2. Therefore, beryllium has electrons per shell 2, 2.

beryllium electron configuration

The electron configuration of Beryllium atom through orbital

Atomic energy levels are subdivided into sub-energy levels. These sub-energy levels are called orbital. The sub energy levels are expressed by ‘l’. The value of ‘l’ is from 0 to (n – 1). The sub-energy levels are known as s, p, d, f.

Determining the value of ‘l’ for different energy levels is-

If n = 1,
(n – 1) = (1–1) = 0
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 1; And the orbital is 1 s.

If n = 2,
(n – 1) = (2–1) = 1.
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 2; And the orbital is 2s, 2p.

If n = 3,
(n – 1) = (3–1) = 2.
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 3; And the orbital is 3s, 3p, 3d.

If n = 4,
(n – 1) = (4–1) = 3
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 4; And the orbital is 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f.

If n = 5,
(n – 1) = (n – 5) = 4.

Therefore, l = 0,1,2,3,4. The number of orbitals will be 5 but 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f in these four orbitals it is possible to arrange the electrons of all the elements of the periodic table.

Beryllium electron configuration in the Aufbau principle

The Aufbau principle is to arrange electrons through sub-energy levels. Scientist Aufbau discovered this electron configuration method. The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f.

electron configuration
Electron Configuration

The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14. The Aufbau electron configuration method is 1 s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d. The beryllium electron configuration in the Aufbau principle is 1s2 2s2.

The electron configuration of Beryllium in Hund’s principle

Hund’s principle is that when electrons enter the orbitals of equal power, the electrons will randomly enter the orbital as long as the orbital is empty. And the spin of these unpaired electrons will be one-sided.

The electron configuration of Beryllium(Be) is Be(4) = 1s2 2s2. ‘s’ suborbital has 1 orbital. Although the beryllium atom has paired electrons, the last orbital of the beryllium atom is s. Therefore, Hund’s principle does not support the entry of new electrons into the ‘s’ orbital.

Determination of group and period through the Beryllium electron configuration

The Beryllium atom electron configuration is 1s2 2s2. The last orbit of an element is the period of that element. The electron configuration of beryllium atom shows that the last orbit of the beryllium atom is 2(2s). So, the period of beryllium is 2.

position of beryllium in the periodic table
Position of beryllium in the periodic table

On the other hand, the number of electrons present in the last orbit of an element is the number of groups in that element. 2 electrons exist in the last orbit of the beryllium. That is, the group number of beryllium is 2. Therefore, we can say that the period of the beryllium element is 2 and the group is 2.

Determination of the valency and valence electrons of beryllium

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency. If the last orbit of an element has 1,2,3 or 4 electrons, then the number of electrons in the last orbit is the valency of that element. Beryllium electron configuration is 1s2 2s2.

valence electrons of beryllium
Valence electrons of beryllium

From the electron configuration of beryllium, we can say that 2 electrons exist in the last orbit(2s2) of beryllium. Therefore, the valency of beryllium is 2. Again, the number of electrons in the last orbit of an element, the number of those electrons is the valence electrons of that element.

In the electron configuration of beryllium, we see that 2 electrons exist in the last orbit of beryllium. Therefore, the valence electrons of beryllium are 2. Finally, we can say that the valency and valence electrons of beryllium are 2.

Determining the block of beryllium by electron configuration

If the last electron enters the s-orbital after the electron configuration of the element, then that element is called the s-block element. The electron configuration of the beryllium element is 1s2 2s2. The beryllium electron configuration shows that the last electron of beryllium enters the s-orbital.

Therefore, beryllium is the s-block element. The elements in groups-1 and 2 are the s-block elements. And helium is the s-block element. There are 14 s-block elements in the 118 elements of the periodic table.

Determination of ionic properties of beryllium by electron configuration

There are 2 types of ionic properties. One is a cation and the other is an anion. The beryllium atom exhibits cation properties. When a charge-neutral atom leaves an electron and turns into a positive ion, it is called a cation.

Although the electron strength of the last orbit of an atom is higher, the force of attraction on that electron by the positive charge of the nucleus is less effective. As the force of attraction is less effective, electrons are removed from the last orbit. And the atom turns into a cation.

We already know that, beryllium electron configuration is 1s2 2s2. There are 2 electrons in the last orbit of beryllium (2s2). The beryllium atom leaves 2 electrons in its last orbit and turns into a cation.

Be – 2e → Be 2+

Therefore, the electron configuration of Be2+ is 1s2. Beryllium leaves 2 electrons and turns into a positive ion. Therefore, beryllium is a cation element.

Beryllium is an alkaline soil metal

The elements of group-2 of the periodic table are alkaline soil metals. The first element of group 2 is beryllium. The element of group-2 is beryllium. Therefore, beryllium is an alkaline soil metal.

Ionic bonds of Beryllium Atom

The beryllium atom forms ionic bonds by exchanging electrons with the fluorine atom. BeF2 is formed by the exchange of electrons between 1 atom of beryllium and 2 atoms of fluorine. Beryllium electron configuration is 1s2 2s2. And the electron configuration of the fluorine atom is F(9) = 1s2 2s2 2p5.

The electron configuration of beryllium atom shows that there are 2 electrons in the last orbit of the beryllium atom. The beryllium atom wants to be more stable by forming one helium atom by eliminating 2 electrons in the last orbit.

Again, 7 electrons exist in the last orbit of the fluorine atom. The fluorine atom wants to be more stable like the neon atom by accepting 1 electron. The beryllium atom donates 2 electrons of its last orbit to the fluorine atom. And through ionic bonds, BeF2 forms compounds.

Beryllium react with other elements to form compounds

Beryllium oxide

Beryllium reacts with oxygen at high temperatures to produce BeO.
2Be + O2 → 2BeO
However, BeO is less important due to its low solubility.
BeO + H2O → Be(OH)2

BeO reacts with water to produce alkali. However, it destroys the alkalinity of the alkali and the acidity of the acid.
BeO reacts with NaOH to form sodium beryllate (Na2BeO2).
BeO + 2NaOH → Na2BeO2 + H2O

That is, BeO is both religious oxides. Beryllium is the s-block element of the 2nd group of the periodic table. Beryllium is an exception compared to other elements in the 2nd group of the phase table. The ion of beryllium atoms has a small size and high ionic potential.

The element has a high polarization capacity of cation and the absence of zero d orbital at the valence level. For this reason, oxides of other elements in the second group are alkaline but BeO exhibits both properties.

Formation of oxygen compounds with beryllium atoms

Beryllium is the alkaline soil metal of group 2. It reacts very slowly with oxygen as it is electrically positive. And forms oxide compounds.
2Be + O2 → 2BeO

As the cation size of beryllium increases, the tendency to form peroxide compounds increases.
2BeO + O2 (500 ° C) → 2BeO2

Properties of beryllium atom

  • The atomic number of beryllium is 4. The atomic number of an element is the number of electrons in that element. Therefore, the number of electrons in beryllium is 4.
  • Beryllium standard atomic weight is 9.012183.
  • Beryllium is an alkaline soil metal.
  • The period of the beryllium element is 2. And the group is 2.
  • The number of valency and valence electrons of a beryllium atom is two.
  • Beryllium is an s-block element.
  • Beryllium easily leaves 2 electrons in its last orbit and turns into a cation. Therefore, beryllium is a very active metal.
  • The beryllium atom forms both ionic and covalent bonds.
  • The beryllium atom is relatively small and its ionic energy value is relatively high. For this, its electrons cannot be elevated to high energy levels under the influence of flame energy. For this reason, the beryllium element flame test does not show any particular color.
  • Ionization energies of beryllium atoms- 1st: 899.5 kJ/mol, 2nd: 1757.1 kJ/mol, 3rd: 14,848.7 kJ/mol
  • The oxidation states of beryllium atoms are 2.
  • The melting point of a beryllium atom is 1560 K ​(1287 °C, ​2349 °F). And the boiling point is 2742 K ​(2469 °C, ​4476 °F)
  • The atomic radius of a beryllium atom is 112 pm.
  • The value of electronegativity of a beryllium atom is 1.57.
  • The covalent radius of the beryllium atom is 96±3 pm.
  • Beryllium atom van der Waals radius 153 pm.
  • 2 electrons exist in the last orbit of beryllium.

Conclusion

The main topic of this article is the beryllium electron configuration and Orbital Diagram . Beryllium is the 2nd period of the periodic table and the 2nd group element.

This article discusses the electron configuration of beryllium atoms, period-groups, valence and valence electrons, compound formation, bond formation, properties of beryllium atoms.

FAQ

How do you write the electron configuration for beryllium?
Ans: Beryllium Electron configuration is Be(4) = 1s2 2s2.

What is the electron configuration for beryllium atomic number 4?
Ans: The electron configuration for beryllium atomic number 4 is 1s2 2s2.

What is the symbol for beryllium?
Ans: The symbol for beryllium is ‘Be’.

How many valence electrons does beryllium(Be) have?
Ans: The valence electrons of beryllium are two.

Reference

  • Wikipedia
  • Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)”. Pure and Applied Chemistry88 (3): 265–91. doi:10.1515/pac-2015-0305.
  • Beryllium(I) Hydride compound data” (PDF). bernath.uwaterloo.ca. Retrieved 10 December 2007.

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