Sodium Electron Configuration with Full Orbital Diagram

Sodium electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1. The symbol for sodium is ‘Na’. The electron configuration of sodium shows that the period of sodium is 3 and sodium is a s-block element. Sodium electron configuration with an orbital diagram is the main topic of this article.

The eleventh element in the periodic table is sodium. The atomic number of sodium is eleven and the total number of electrons in the sodium atom is 11. These electrons are arranged according to specific rules of different orbits. The position of the electrons in different energy levels of the atom and the orbital in a certain order is called electron configuration.

Electron configuration is done in 2 ways of all the elements of the periodic table. That’s why sodium electron configuration can be done in 2 ways.

  1. Electron configuration through orbit.
  2. Electron configuration through orbital.

Sodium electron configuration through orbit

Scientist  Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit. These orbits are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

sodium electron configuration

K is the name of the first orbit, L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit. The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now,
n = 1 for K orbit.
The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.

For L orbit, n = 2.
The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.

n=3 for M orbit.
The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 3= 18 electrons.

n=4 for N orbit.
The maximum electron holding capacity in N orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 32 electrons.

The atomic number is the number of electrons in that element. The atomic number of sodium is eleven. That is, the number of electrons in sodium is eleven.

Therefore, the maximum electron holding capacity in the first orbit is two. The maximum electron holding capacity in the second orbit eight. And the 3rd orbit can have a maximum of 18 electrons. We know that the total number of electrons in a sodium atom is 11.

Therefore, the sodium atom will have two electrons in the first orbit, eight in the 2nd orbit, and one electron in the 3rd orbit. Therefore, the order of electron configuration of sodium atoms is 2, 8, 1. Sodium has electrons per shell 2, 8, 1.

The electron configuration of sodium atom through orbital

Atomic energy levels are subdivided into sub-energy levels. These sub-energy levels are called orbital. The sub energy levels are expressed by ‘l’. The value of ‘l’ is from 0 to (n – 1). The sub-energy levels are known as s, p, d, f.

Determining the value of ‘l’ for different energy levels is-

If n = 1,
(n – 1) = (1–1) = 0
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 1; And the orbital is 1 s.

If n = 2,
(n – 1) = (2–1) = 1.
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 2; And the orbital is 2s, 2p.

If n = 3,
(n – 1) = (3–1) = 2.
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 3; And the orbital is 3s, 3p, 3d.

If n = 4,
(n – 1) = (4–1) = 3
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 4; And the orbital is 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f.

If n = 5,
(n – 1) = (n – 5) = 4.

sodium electron configuration
Sodium Electron Configuration

Therefore, l = 0,1,2,3,4. The number of orbitals will be 5 but 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f in these four orbitals it is possible to arrange the electrons of all the elements of the periodic table. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

Sodium electron configuration in the Aufbau principle

The German physicist Aufbau first proposed an idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level. These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’. The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14. 

The Aufbau electron configuration method is 1 s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d. The sodium electron configuration in the Aufbau principle is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1.

The electron configuration of sodium in the Hund principle

Another method of electron configuration is the Hund principle. The German physicist Friedrich Hund provided a guideline for the entry of electrons into different orbitals of equal power. Which is known as the Hund principle. The Hund principle is that when electrons enter the orbitals of equal power, the electrons will randomly enter the orbital as long as the orbital is empty. And the spin of these unpaired electrons will be one-sided. But does not support Hund principle in s-orbital.

This is because the s-orbital has only one orbital and the s-orbital cannot be divided. Therefore, the Hund principle does not apply when electrons enter the s-orbital. Sodium(Na) Electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1. The electron configuration of sodium atom shows that the last orbital of sodium(Na) is ‘s’. As we know, Hund principle does not apply when electrons enter the s-orbital. The last orbital of sodium is ‘s’. So, the Hund principle is not acceptable for sodium atoms.

Determination of group and period through the sodium electron configuration

The sodium electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1. The last orbit of an element is the period of that element. The electron configuration of sodium atom shows that the last orbit of the sodium atom is 3(3s1). So, the period of sodium is three.

On the other hand, the number of electrons present in the last orbit of an element is the number of group in that element. One electron exists in the last orbital(3s1) of sodium. That is, the group number of sodium is 1. Therefore, we can say that the period of sodium element is 3 and the group is 1.

Determining the block of sodium by electron configuration

The elements in the periodic table are divided into 4 blocks based on the electron configuration of the element. The block of elements is determined based on the electron configuration of the element.

If the last electron enters the s-orbital after the electron configuration of the element, then that element is called the s-block element. The sodium electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1. The electron configuration of sodium shows that the last electron of sodium enters the s-orbital. Therefore, sodium is the s-block element.

Determination of the Valency (valence) and Valence Electrons of Sodium

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency(valence). The number of unpaired electrons in the last orbit of an element is the valency(valence) of that element. The electron configuration of sodium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1. The electron configuration of sodium(Na) shows that there is 1 unpaired electron in the last orbit of sodium. Therefore, the valency(valence) of sodium is 1.

valence electrons of sodium
Valence Electrons of Sodium

Again, the valency(valence) of the element can be determined in another way. If the last orbit of an element has 1,2,3 or 4 electrons, then the number of electrons in the last orbit is the valency(valence) of that element. The electron configuration of sodium(Na) is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1. From the sodium electron configuration, we can say that 1 electron exists in the last orbit(1s1) of sodium. Therefore, the valency(valence) of sodium is 1.

Again, the number of electrons in the last orbit of an element, the number of those electrons is the valence electrons of that element. In the electron configuration for sodium, we see that, one electron exist in the last orbit of sodium. Therefore, the valence electrons of the sodium are 1. Finally, we can say that the valency(valence) and valence electrons of the sodium are 1.

Ionic properties of sodium(Na) atoms

There are 2 types of ionic properties. One is a cation and the other is an anion. The sodium atom exhibits cation properties. When a charge-neutral atom leaves an electron and turns into a positive ion, it is called a cation.

Although the electron strength of the last orbit of an atom is higher, the force of attraction on that electron by the positive charge of the nucleus is less effective. As the force of attraction is less effective, electrons are removed from the last orbit. And the atom turns into a cation.

The sodium electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1. There is 1 electron in the last orbit of sodium(3s1). The sodium atom leaves one electron in its last orbit and turns into a cation.

Na – e → Na+

Therefore, the electron configuration of sodium ion(Na+) is 1s2 2s2 2p6.
Sodium leaves one electron and turns into a positive ion. Therefore, sodium is a cation element.

Bonding of sodium atom

Sodium atoms always form ionic bonds. Sodium atoms form ionic bonds by exchanging electrons with chlorine atoms. The electron configuration of sodium and chlorine atoms is-

The sodium electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1.
The electron configuration of chlorine is Cl(17) = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5.

The electron configuration of a sodium atom indicates that there is one(3s1) electron in the 3rd orbit of the sodium atom. The sodium atom wants to be as stable as the inert element neon by leaving one electron in its last orbit.

sodium chloride structure and bonding
Sodium Chloride Structure and Bonding

On the other hand, the electron configuration of chlorine atom implies that the last orbit of a chlorine atom has 7 electrons. The chlorine atom wants to fill the octave by taking one electron in its last orbit. So, the sodium atom donates one electron of its last orbit to the chlorine atom. Sodium and chlorine atoms form sodium chloride(NaCl) compounds through ionic bonds by exchanging electrons in their last orbit.

2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl (sodium chloride)

The reaction of Sodium(Na) Atom

Sodium is an alkali metal. The atomic number of sodium atoms is eleven and sodium electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1. Sodium forms bonds and compounds with various elements. Here are a few discussed.

The reaction of sodium(Na) atoms with halogen

Halogen elements are fluorine(F), chlorine(Cl), bromine(Br), iodine(I), and astatine(At). The s-block element is sodium. Sodium reacts with halogen to form halide compounds.

2Na + F2 → 2NaF (sodium fluoride)
2Na + Cl2 → 2NaCl (sodium chloride)
2Na + Br2 → 2NaBr (sodium bromide)
2Na + I2 → 2NaI (sodium iodide)

The reaction of sodium(Na) atoms with oxygen

Sodium is an element of group-1. Therefore, the tendency of sodium atoms to bind to oxygen is much higher. Sodium atoms combine with oxygen to form oxides, dioxides, and super-oxides.

4Na + O2 (heat) → 2Na2O
Alkaline metal sodium is heated with excess oxygen to form sodium peroxide.
2Na + O2 → Na2O2 (sodium peroxide)

The reaction of sodium(Na) atoms with water

The alkali metal is sodium. The reduction value of the sodium atom is very high. For this, the best reduction than hydrogen is the sodium atom. Sodium metal reacts with water to produce hydrogen gas.

2Na + 2H2O → 2NaOH + H2

The reaction of sodium(Na) atoms with hydrogen

Sodium atoms react with dry hydrogen at 400 °C to form hydride compounds.
2Na + H2 (400 C) → 2NaH

The reaction of sodium (Na) atoms with other elements

Sodium atoms react with sulfur and phosphorus to form compounds.

16Na + S8 (heat) → 8 Na2S
12Na + P4 (heat) → 4 Na3P

Again, sodium atoms react with mercury to produce amalgam.

Na + Hg → NaHg

Properties of Sodium Atoms

  1. The atomic number of sodium atoms is 11. The atomic number of an element is the number of electrons and protons in that element. That is, the number of electrons and protons in the sodium atom is eleven.
  2. The sodium electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1.
  3. The active atomic mass of the sodium atom is 22.98976928.
  4. Sodium is an alkali metal.
  5. The number of valency and valence electrons of a sodium atom is 1.
  6. Sodium atoms are the 3rd period of the periodic table and an element of the first group.
  7. Sodium is a highly electrically positive element. Therefore, sodium forms stable compounds.
  8. Sodium is a cation element.
  9. Sodium atoms form ionic bonds.
  10. The sodium atom can easily release 1 electron in its last orbit. For this reason, it is a very active metal.
  11. Sodium cation is filled by welded electrons. Therefore, its cation is diamagnetic and colorless.
  12. The melting point of a sodium atom is 370.944 K ​(97.794 °C, ​208.029 °F). And the boiling point is 1156.090 K ​(882.940 °C, ​1621.292 °F).
  13. The electronegativity of sodium atoms is 0.93 (Pauling scale).
  14. Sodium is an s-block element.
  15. The oxidation states of sodium are +1.
  16. Reduction potential of sodium atoms is 2.71.
  17. The atomic volume of the sodium atom is 27.7cc.
  18. Ionization energies of sodium atoms are 1st: 495.8 kJ/mol, 2nd: 4562 kJ/mol, 3rd: 6910.3 kJ/mol.
  19. The electron addiction of sodium atoms is –52.8kj/mol.
  20. The covalent radius of the sodium atom is 166±9 pm.
  21. Sodium atom van der Waals radius is 227 pm.

Conclusion of Sodium Electron configuration

The atomic number of sodium is eleven. The atomic number of an element is the number of electrons in that element. Therefore, the number of electrons in the sodium is 11. The sodium electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1. The main topic of this article is the sodium electron configuration with an orbital diagram.

Sodium is the 3rd period of the periodic table and the group-1 element. This article discusses the electron configuration of sodium atom, period-groups, valency(valence) and valence electrons, compound formation, Ionic properties of sodium(Na), properties of the sodium atom.

FAQ of Sodium Electron configuration

How do you write the electron configuration for Sodium?
Ans: Sodium Electron configuration is Na(11) = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1.

How many electron does Sodium have?
Ans: Eleven electrons.

What is electron configuration of sodium 11?
Ans: Electron configuration of sodium 11 is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1.

How many valence electrons in sodium?
Ans: One valence electron.

What is the symbol for sodium?
Ans: The symbol for sodium is ‘Na’.

References

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *