# How many valence electrons does sodium(Na) have?

Sodium is the eleventh element in the periodic table. Sodium is an alkali metal and, its symbol is ‘Na’. This article discusses in detail the valence electron of sodium atoms.

## What are the valence electrons of sodium(Na)?

Sodium is an alkali metal. Sodium is an element of group-1. The valence electron is the total number of electrons in the last orbit(shell). The total number of electrons in the last shell after the electron configuration of sodium is called the valence electrons of sodium(Na).

The valence electrons determine the properties of the element and participate in the formation of bonds. The eleventh element in the periodic table is sodium(Na). That is, the atom of the sodium element has a total of eleven electrons.

The electron configuration of sodium(Na) shows that the last shell(orbit) of sodium has a total of one electron. That is, we can easily say that the valence electron of sodium(Na) is one. There is an article on this site detailing the electron configuration of sodium(Na), you can read it if you want.

## How many electrons and proton does the sodium(Na) atom have?

The nucleus is located in the center of the atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The atomic number of sodium(Na) is 11. The atomic number is the number of protons.

That is, the number of protons in the sodium(Na) is 11. Electrons equal to protons are located in a circular shell(orbit) outside the nucleus. That is, the sodium(Na) atom has a total of eleven electrons.

## How to determine the valence electron of sodium(Na)?

Now we will know how to easily determine the valence electrons of sodium(Na). The valence electron has to be determined by following a few steps. The electron configuration is one of them. It is not possible to determine the valence electron without electron configuration.

Knowing the electron configuration in the right way, it is very easy to determine the valence electrons of all the elements. There is an article published on this site detailing the electron configuration, you can read it if you want. However, this article briefly discusses electron configuration.

Scientist Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there.

The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit( shell). These orbits(shell) are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit(shell), L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit(shell). The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now, n = 1 for K orbit. The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.

For L orbit, n = 2. The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.

n=3 for M orbit. The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 18 electrons.

In addition to this method, electron configuration can be done through sub-orbits. The German physicist Aufbau first proposed an idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level. These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’.

The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

However, valence electrons can be easily identified by arranging electrons according to the Bohr principle. Now we will learn how to determine the valence electrons of sodium(Na).

Step-1: First we need to know the total number of electrons in the sodium(Na) atom. To know the number of electrons, you need to know the number of protons in sodium. And to know the number of protons, you need to know the atomic number of the sodium element.

To know the atomic number we need to take the help of a periodic table. It is necessary to know the atomic number of sodium(Na) elements from the periodic table. The atomic number is the number of protons and electrons equal to protons located outside the nucleus.

That is, we can finally say that there are electrons equal to the atomic number in the sodium(Na) atom. From the periodic table, we see that the atomic number of sodium(Na) is 11. That is, a sodium(Na) atom has a total of eleven electrons.

Step-2: Step 2 is very important. In this step, the electrons of sodium(Na) have to be arranged. We know that sodium atoms have a total of eleven electrons. The electron configuration of sodium(Na) shows that there are two electrons in the K shell, eight in the L shell, and one in the M shell(orbit).

That is, the first shell of sodium has two electrons, the second shell has eight electrons and the 3rd shell(orbit) has one electron. The electron configuration of sodium(Na) through the sub-orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1.

Step-3: The third step is to diagnose the valence shell(orbit). The last shell after the electron configuration is called the valence shell(orbit). The total number of electrons in a valence shell(orbit) is called a valence electron.

The electron configuration of sodium(Na) shows that the last shell(orbit) of sodium has one electron. Therefore, the valence electron of sodium(Na) is one. In this way, the valence electrons of all the elements can be determined.

## Determination of the valency(valence) of sodium(Na)

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency(valence). The number of unpaired electrons in the last orbit of an element is the valency(valence) of that element.

The electron configuration of sodium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1. The electron configuration of sodium(Na) shows that there is one unpaired electron in the last orbit of sodium. Therefore, the valency(valence) of sodium is 1.

## How many valence electrons does sodium ion(Na+) have?

After the electron configuration, the last shell of the sodium atom has an electron. In this case, the valence(valency) of sodium is 1. We know the details about this. The elements that have 1, 2, or three electrons in the last shell(orbit) donate the electrons in the last shell during bond formation.

The elements that form bonds by donating electrons are called cations. That is, sodium is a cation element. Sodium donates the electron of the last shell to form bonds and turns into sodium ions.

Na – e → Na+

The electron configuration of sodium ions is 1s2 2s2 2p6. The electron configuration of sodium-ion shows that sodium ions have only two shells and that shell has eight electrons.

The electron configuration shows that the sodium atom has acquired the electron configuration of neon. That is, in this case, the valence(valency) of the sodium-ion is +1. Since the last shell(orbit) of a sodium-ion has eight electrons, the valence electrons of sodium-ion are eight.

## Compound formation of Sodium(Na)

Sodium participates in the formation of bonds through its valence electron. We know that the valence electron in sodium is one. This valence electron participates in the formation of bonds with atoms of other elements.

The electron configuration of chlorine shows that the valence electrons of chlorine are seven. The sodium atom donates its valence electron to the chlorine atom and, the chlorine atom receives that electron.