Oxygen Electron Configuration with Full Orbital Diagram

Oxygen electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p4. The electron configuration of oxygen shows that the period of oxygen is 2 and oxygen is an p-block element. Oxygen electron configuration with an orbital diagram is the main topic of this article.

The eighth element in the periodic table is oxygen. The atomic number of oxygen is 8 and the total number of electrons in the oxygen atom is 8. These electrons are arranged according to specific rules of different orbits. The position of the electrons in different energy levels of the atom and the orbital in a certain order is called electron configuration.

Electron configuration is done in 2 ways of all the elements of the periodic table. That’s why Oxygen electron configuration can be done in 2 ways.

  1. Electron configuration via orbit.
  2. Electron configuration via orbital.

Oxygen electron configuration via orbit

Scientist  Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit. These orbits are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit, L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit. The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now,
n = 1 for K orbit.
The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.

For L orbit, n = 2.
The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.

n=3 for M orbit.
The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 3= 18 electrons.

n=4 for N orbit.
The maximum electron holding capacity in N orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 32 electrons.

The atomic number is the number of electrons in that element. The atomic number of oxygen is 8. That is, the number of electrons in oxygen is 8.

Therefore, the maximum electron holding capacity in the first orbit is 2. And the maximum electron holding capacity in the second orbit is 8. In the electron configuration of oxygen, The total number of electrons in a oxygen atom is 8.

Therefore, the two electrons of oxygen will be in the first orbit. And the other six electrons will be in the second orbit. The order of electron configuration of oxygen atoms through orbits is 2, 6. Therefore, oxygen has electrons per shell 2, 6.

Oxygen Electron Configuration

The electron configuration of Oxygen atom through orbital

Atomic energy levels are subdivided into sub-energy levels. These sub-energy levels are called orbital. The sub energy levels are expressed by ‘l’. The value of ‘l’ is from 0 to (n – 1). The sub-energy levels are known as s, p, d, f.

Determining the value of ‘l’ for different energy levels is-

If n = 1,
(n – 1) = (1–1) = 0
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 1; And the orbital is 1 s.

If n = 2,
(n – 1) = (2–1) = 1.
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 2; And the orbital is 2s, 2p.

If n = 3,
(n – 1) = (3–1) = 2.
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 3; And the orbital is 3s, 3p, 3d.

If n = 4,
(n – 1) = (4–1) = 3
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 4; And the orbital is 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f.

If n = 5,
(n – 1) = (n – 5) = 4.

Therefore, l = 0,1,2,3,4. The number of orbitals will be 5 but 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f in these four orbitals it is possible to arrange the electrons of all the elements of the periodic table. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

Oxygen electron configuration in the Aufbau principle

The German physicist Aufbau first proposed the idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level. These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’. The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14. 

electron configuration
Electron Configuration

The Aufbau electron configuration method is 1 s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d. The oxygen electron configuration in the Aufbau principle is 1s2 2s2 2p4.

Electron configuration of Nitrogen in the Hund principle

Another method of electron configuration is the Hund principle. The German physicist Friedrich Hund provided a guideline for the entry of electrons into different orbitals of equal power. Which is known as the Hund principle. The Hund principle is that when electrons enter the orbitals of equal power, the electrons will randomly enter the orbital as long as the orbital is empty. And the spin of these unpaired electrons will be one-sided. This principle applies to- p, d, f orbitals. The s-orbital does not support the Hund principle.

Normally oxygen electron configuration is O(8) = 1s2 2s2 2p4. And in Hund’s principle, the electron configuration of oxygen is 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py1 2pz1. The electron configuration of Oxygen in excited state is O*(8) = 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py1 2pz1.

The last orbital of oxygen is p. And unpaired electrons exist in its last p-orbital. So. The oxygen atom supports Hund principle.

Determination of group and period through the oxygen electron configuration

The oxygen electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p4. The last orbit of an element is the period of that element. The electron configuration of oxygen atom shows that the last orbit of the oxygen atom is 2(2s 2p). So, the period of oxygen is 2.

position of oxygen in the periodic table
Position of oxygen in the periodic table

On the other hand, the number of electrons present in the last orbit of an element is the number of groups in that element. But in the case of p-block elements, group diagnosis is different. To determine the group of p-block elements, the group has to be determined by adding 10 to the total number of electrons in the last orbit.

The total number of electrons in the last orbit of the oxygen atom is 6. That is, the group number of oxygen is 6 + 10 = 16. Therefore, we can say that the period of the oxygen element is 2 and the group is 16.

Determining the block of Oxygen by electron configuration

The elements in the periodic table are divided into 4 blocks based on the electron configuration of the element. The block of elements is determined based on the electron configuration of the element. If the last electron enters the p-orbital after the electron configuration of the element, then that element is called the p-block element.

The oxygen electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p4. The electron configuration of oxygen(O) shows that the last electron of oxygen enters the p-orbital. Therefore, oxygen is the p-block element.

Determination of the Valency (valence) and Valence Electrons of Oxygen

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency(valence) .

valence electrons of oxygen
Valence electrons of oxygen

The number of unpaired electrons in the last orbit of an element is the valency(valence) of that element. The electron configuration of oxygen in excited state is O*(8) = 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py1 2pz1. The electron configuration of oxygen(O) shows that there are 2 unpaired electrons in the last orbit of oxygen. Therefore, the valency(valence) of the oxygen(O) is 2.

valence electrons of oxygen
Valence Electrons of Oxygen

Again, the number of electrons in the last orbit of an element, the number of those electrons is the valence electrons of that element. In the electron configuration for oxygen, we see that 6 electrons exist in the last orbit of the oxygen. Therefore, the valence electrons of the oxygen are 6. Finally, we can say that the valency (valence) of the oxygen are 2, and the valence electrons of the oxygen are 6.

Ionic properties of Oxygen atoms

The electron configuration of oxygen atom is 1s2 2s2 2p4. Oxygen is an anion element. When a charge-neutral atom receives an electron and turns it into a negative ion, it is called an anion. The last orbit of an oxygen atom has 6 electrons. The oxygen atom takes 2 electrons to fill the octave and become an anion.

O + (2e) → O2–

Oxygen atoms take on electrons and turn into negative ions. The electron configuration of oxygen ions(O2–) is 1s2 2s2 2p6. Therefore, Oxygen is an anion element.

Bond formation of Oxygen atoms

Oxygen atoms always form covalent bonds. Oxygen atoms form covalent bonds by sharing electrons with nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, hydrogen atoms. The electron configuration of hydrogen and oxygen atoms is-

The hydrogen electron configuration is 1s1.
And oxygen electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p4.

The above electron configuration shows that 4 electrons exist in the last orbital of the oxygen atom. The oxygen atom wants to fill the electron in its last orbital. Again, there is only one orbital of the hydrogen atom and it has 1 electron. The hydrogen atom wants to complete the orbital by receiving 1 electron. Therefore, two hydrogen atoms share electrons with one oxygen atom to produce water through covalent bonding.

water molecule structure

Formation of an Oxygen compound

One of the elements of group-16 is oxygen. Oxygen is a very active and electrically negative element. Therefore, oxygen can easily participate in the reaction.

The reaction of oxygen atoms with hydrogen

Oxygen atoms react with hydrogen atoms to produce water.
O2 + H2 → H2O
Water is liquid under normal conditions.

The reaction of Oxygen with Metals

Oxygen atoms react with metals to form metal oxides. E.g.
Q + O2 → QO2 [here, metal = Q]

Sodium reacts with oxygen to produce Na2O. Na2O dissolves in water to produce NaOH.
4Na+O2 → 2Na2O
Na2O+H2O → 2NaOH

Potassium reacts with oxygen to produce K2O with a purple flame. It dissolves in water to produce KOH.
4K + O2 → 2K2O
K2O + H2O → 2KOH

However, sodium and potassium react with excess oxygen to produce sodium peroxide and potassium superoxide.
2Na + O2 (extra) → Na2O2
K + O2 (extra) → KO2

Oxygen reacts with other metals to form metal oxides

2Mg + O2 → 2MgO
2Al + 3O2 → 2Al2O3
2Cu + O2 → 2CuO
4Ag + O2 → 2Ag2O
2Zn + O2 → 2ZnO
2Hg + O2 → 2HgO

Oxygen reaction with non-metallic atoms

Boron(B), Carbon(C), Phosphorus(P), Sulfur(S), etc. react with oxygen to form non-metallic oxides.
4B + 3O2 → 2B2O3
S + O2 → SO2
4P + 5O2 → 2P2O5
C + O2 → CO2

The binding length of the oxygen atom

  • The binding length of O = O is 136 pm.
  • Bonding length of O – O is 148 pm.
  • The bond length of O = C is 123 pm.
  • Bond length of C – O is 143 pm.
  • The binding length of N = O is 122 pm.
  • The binding length of N – O is 136 pm.
  • The bond length of O – H is 97 pm.

Properties of Oxygen Atoms

  • The atomic number of oxygen atoms is 8. The atomic number of an element is the number of electrons and protons in that element. That is, the number of electrons and protons in the Oxygen atom is 8.
  • The active atomic mass of the oxygen atom is [15.99903, 15.99977].
  • Oxygen is a non-metal.
  • The valency(valence) of a Oxygen atom is 2 and the valence electrons of a Oxygen atom are 6.
  • Oxygen atoms are the 2nd period of the periodic table and an element of the 16-group.
  • At normal temperatures oxygen molecules remain in the form of gases.
  • Oxygen is an anion element.
  • Oxygen atoms form covalent bonds.
  • Oxygen is the p-block element.
  • The melting point of a Oxygen atom is 54.36 K ​(−218.79 °C, ​−361.82 °F) and the boiling point is 90.188 K ​(−182.962 °C, ​−297.332 °F).
  • The electronegativity of oxygen atoms is 3.44 (Pauling scale).
  • The oxidation states of oxygen are –2, –1.
  • The ionic radius of the oxygen atom is 48 pm.
  • Oxygen atom van der Waals radius is 152 pm.
  • Ionization energies of oxygen atoms are 1st: 1313.9 kJ/mol, 2nd: 3388.3 kJ/mol, 3rd: 5300.5 kJ/mol.
  • The electron addiction of oxygen atoms is –142 kJ/mol.
  • The covalent radius of the oxygen atom is 66±2 pm.
  • Oxygen exhibits ionic properties.

Conclusion of Oxygen Electron configuration

The atomic number of oxygen is 8. The atomic number of an element is the number of electrons in that element. Therefore, the number of electrons in the oxygen is 8. The main topic of this article is the oxygen electron configuration with orbital diagram. Oxygen is the 2nd period of the periodic table and the group-16 element. This article discusses the electron configuration of oxygen atoms, period-groups, valency(valence) and valence electrons, compound formation, Covalent properties of oxygen, properties of the oxygen atom.

FAQ of Oxygen Electron configuration

What is the electron configuration of oxygen?
Ans: Oxygen Electron configuration is O(8) = 1s2 2s2 2p4.

What is the valence electron configuration for the oxygen atom?
Ans: 6 valence electrons.

How can oxygen become stable electron configuration?
Ans: The last orbit of a oxygen atom has 6 electrons. The oxygen atom takes 2 electrons to fill the octave and become stable. The electron configuration of oxygen ions(O2–) is 1s2 2s2 2p6.

How does oxygen gain electron noble gas configuration?
Ans: The last orbit of a oxygen atom has 6 electrons. The oxygen atom takes 2 electrons to fill the octave and become gain electron noble gas configuration.

How many valence electrons does oxygen(O) have?
Ans: Six valence electrons.

References

  •  Wikipedia
  • Weast, Robert (1984). CRC, Handbook of Chemistry and Physics. Boca Raton, Florida: Chemical Rubber Company Publishing. pp. E110. ISBN 0-8493-0464-4.
  • Atkins, P.; Jones, L.; Laverman, L. (2016).Chemical Principles, 7th edition. Freeman. ISBN 978-1-4641-8395-9
  • Jump up to:a b c d e Weiss, H. M. (2008). “Appreciating Oxygen”. J. Chem. Educ85 (9): 1218–19. Bibcode:2008JChEd..85.1218W. doi:10.1021/ed085p1218.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *