# Boron Electron Configuration and Full Orbital Diagram

Boron electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p1. The electron configuration of boron shows that period of boron is 2 and boron is the p-block element. The valency and valence electrons of the boron are 3.

This article gives an idea about the electron configuration of boron, the period and groups of boron, the valency(valence) and valence electrons of boron, application of different principles.

The fifth element in the periodic table is the boron. The total number of electrons in boron is five. These electrons are arranged according to specific rules of different orbits.

The position of the electrons in different energy levels of the atom and the orbital in a certain order is called electron configuration. Electron configuration is done in 2 ways of all the elements of the periodic table. The electron configuration of boron can be done in 2 ways.

1. Electron configuration via orbit.
2. Electron configuration via orbital.

Electron configuration through orbitals follows different principles. For example, the Aufbau principle, Hund’s principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle.

## Boron electron configuration through orbit

Scientist Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit. These orbits are expressed by n. [n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit, L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit. The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [ n = 1,2 3,4 …..].

Now,

• n = 1 for K orbit.
The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.
• For L orbit, n = 2.
The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.
• n=3 for M orbit.
The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 3= 18 electrons.
• n=4 for N orbit.
The maximum electron holding capacity in N orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 32 electrons.

The atomic number is the number of electrons in that element. The atomic number of boron is 5. That is, the number of electrons in the boron is 5.

Therefore, the maximum electron holding capacity in the first orbit is 2. And the maximum electron holding capacity in the second orbit is 8.

In the boron electron configuration, The total number of electrons in a boron atom is 5. We know that a maximum of two electrons can be located in orbit number 1.

Therefore, the two electrons of the boron will be in the first orbit. And the other three electrons will be in the second orbit. The order of electron configuration of boron atoms through orbits is 2, 3. Therefore, boron has electrons per shell 2, 3.

## The electron configuration of boron atom through orbital

Atomic energy levels are subdivided into sub-energy levels. These sub-energy levels are called orbital. The sub energy levels are expressed by ‘l’. The value of ‘l’ is from 0 to (n – 1). The sub-energy levels are known as s, p, d, f.

Determining the value of ‘l’ for different energy levels is-

If n = 1,
(n – 1) = (1–1) = 0
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 1; And the orbital is 1 s.

If n = 2,
(n – 1) = (2–1) = 1.
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 2; And the orbital is 2s, 2p.

If n = 3,
(n – 1) = (3–1) = 2.
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 3; And the orbital is 3s, 3p, 3d.

If n = 4,
(n – 1) = (4–1) = 3
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 4; And the orbital is 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f.

If n = 5,
(n – 1) = (n – 5) = 4.

Therefore, l = 0,1,2,3,4. The number of orbitals will be 5 but 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f in these four orbitals it is possible to arrange the electrons of all the elements of the periodic table. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

### Boron electron configuration in the Aufbau principle

The Aufbau principle is to arrange electrons through sub-energy levels. Scientist Aufbau discovered this electron configuration method.

The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f.

The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14. The Aufbau electron configuration method is  1 s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d. The Boron electron configuration in the Aufbau principle is 1s2 2s2 2p1.

### The electron configuration of boron in Hund’s principle

The German physicist Hund provided a guideline for the entry of electrons into the orbital. This principle is called Hund’s principle.

Hund’s principle is that when electrons enter the orbitals of equal power, the electrons will randomly enter the orbital as long as the orbital is empty. And the spin of these unpaired electrons will be one-sided. Normally boron electron configuration is B(5) = 1s2 2s2 2p1.

And in Hund’s principle, the electron configuration of boron is 1s2 2s1 2px1 2py1. The electron configuration of boron in excited state is B*(5) = 1s2 2s1 2px1 2py1.

## Determination of group and period through the boron electron configuration

The boron electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p1. The last orbit of an element is the period of that element. The electron configuration of the boron atom shows that the last orbit of the boron atom is 2(2s2 2p1). So, the period of boron is 2.

On the other hand, the number of electrons present in the last orbit of an element is the number of groups in that element. But in the case of p-block elements, group diagnosis is different.

To determine the group of p-block elements, the group has to be determined by adding 10 to the total number of electrons in the last orbit. That is, the group number of boron is 3 + 10 = 13. Therefore, we can say that the period of the boron element is 2 and the group is 13.

## Determination of the valency and valence electrons of boron

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency. If the last orbit of an element has 1,2,3 or 4 electrons, then the number of electrons in the last orbit is the valency of that element.

The electron configuration of boron(B) is 1s2 2s2 2p1. From the boron electron configuration, we can say that 3 electron exists in the last orbit(2s2 2p1) of boron. Therefore, the valency of the boron is 3.

Again, the valency of the element can be determined in another way. The number of unpaired electrons in the last orbit of an element is the valency of that element.

The electron configuration of boron in excited state is B*(5) = 1s2 2s1 2px1 2py1. The electron configuration of boron(B) shows that there are three unpaired electrons in the last orbit of boron. Therefore, the valency of the boron is 3.

Again, the number of electrons in the last orbit of an element, the number of those electrons is the valence electrons of that element.

In the electron configuration for boron, we see that 3 electrons exist in the last orbit of the boron. Therefore, the valence electrons of the boron are 3. Finally, we can say that the valency and valence electrons of the boron are 3.

## Determining the block of boron by electron configuration

If the last electron enters the p-orbital after the electron configuration of the element, then that element is called the p-block element. The boron electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p1.

The electron configuration of boron shows that the last electron of boron enters the p-orbital. Therefore, boron is the p-block element.

## Determination of ionic properties of boron by electron configuration

There are 2 types of ionic properties. One is a cation and the other is an anion. The boron atom exhibits cation properties. When a charge-neutral atom leaves an electron and turns into a positive ion, it is called a cation.

Although the electron strength of the last orbit of an atom is higher, the force of attraction on that electron by the positive charge of the nucleus is less effective. As the force of attraction is less effective, electrons are removed from the last orbit. And the atom turns into a cation.

The electron configuration of boron is B(5) = 1s2 2s2 2p1. There are 3 electrons in the last orbit of boron(2s2 2p1.). The boron atom leaves 3 electrons in its last orbit and turns into a cation.

B – 3e → B3+

Therefore, the electron configuration of B3+ is 1s2.
Boron leaves 3 electrons and turns into a positive ion. Therefore, boron is a cation element.

## Covalent properties of boron atom

The element of group-13 is boron(B). The boron electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p1. The ions of the boron atom are very small. When boron donates 3 electrons and turns into B3+ ions, the value of ionic radius is very low. The cation is much smaller than the size of the positive charge of the nucleus.

In this case, especially in the case of BCl3, the tendency of Cl ion to attract electrons increases. The B–Cl bond creates more polarity. As a result, covalent properties are revealed in ionic bonds.

## Ionic bonds of Boron

Boron atoms form ionic bonds by exchanging electrons with chlorine atoms. The electron configuration of boron and chlorine atoms-

Boron electron configuration is B(5) = 1s2 2s2 2p1 .
And the electron configuration of chlorine is Cl(17) = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p5.

The electron configuration of boron indicates that the last orbit of the boron atom has 3 electrons. The boron atom wants to be stable like an inert element by leaving 3 electrons in its last orbit. On the other hand, the last orbital of the chlorine atom has 7 electrons. The chlorine atom wants to be stable by accepting 1 electron in its last orbit.

So, 3 electrons in the last orbit of the boron atom donate to the chlorine atom. Both come to a stable state by donating electrons. 1 boron atom and 3 chlorine atoms exchange electrons to form the BCl3 compound through ionic bonding.

## Boron reacts with other elements to form compounds

### The reaction of Oxygen with Boron

The element of group-13 is boron. Boron reacts with oxygen to form oxide compounds.
4B + 3O2 → 2B2O3.

From the top to the bottom of the group, the acidity of the element decreases, and the alkalinity increases. Boron is the first and most important element in group-13. Therefore, the oxide of the boron atom will be acidic. That is, B2O3 is an acidic compound.

### The reaction of nitrogen with Boron

Boron reacts with nitrogen atoms to form nitride compounds. Nitrogen electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p3.
2B + N2 (heat) → 2 BN

The BN and halide compounds produced are covalent and are hydrolyzed to form hydride compounds.

BN + 3H2O → B(OH)3 + NH3
BF3 + 3H2O → B(OH)3 + 3HF
BCl3 + 3H2O → B(OH)3 + 3HCl
BBr3 + 3H2O → B(OH)3 + 3HBr
BI3 + 3H2O → B(OH)3 + 3HI

Boron nitride compounds are produced when boron N2 gas is heated to a temperature of about 900 ° C.
2B + N2 (900 ° C) → 2BN.

Boron nitride is a very slippery solid element. In fact boron nitride is a permanent structure composed of numerous layers of boron and nitrogen arranged in a balanced hexagonal shape. Its structure is similar to that of graphite.

### The reaction of boron with halogen

The element of group-13 is boron. Boron atoms react with halogen to form halide compounds.

2B + 3F (heat) → 2 BF3
2B + 3Cl (heat) → 2 BCl3
2B + 3Br (heat) → 2 BBr3
2B + 3I (heat) → 2 BI3

### The reaction of boron atoms with water

Boron atoms react with water at 100 ° C to form hydroxide compounds.
2B + 6H2O (100 ° C) → 2B(OH)3 + 3H2

## Properties of boron

• The atomic number of boron is 5. The atomic number of an element is the number of electrons in that element. Therefore, the number of electrons in the boron is 5.
• boron standard atomic weight is [10.806, 10.821]
• The period of the boron element is 2. And the group is 13.
• The value of electronegativity of boron atoms is 2.04.
• The covalent radius of the boron atom is 84±3 pm.
• The atomic radius of the boron atom is 87pm.
• Boron atom van der Waals radius 192 pm.
• Ionization energies of boron atoms 1st: 800.6 kJ/mol, 2nd: 2427.1 kJ/mol. 3rd: 3659.7 kJ/mol.
• The oxidation states of boron atoms are +3.
• Boron is a p-block element.
• The melting point of a boron atom is 2349 K ​(2076 °C, ​3769 °F). And the boiling point is 4200 K ​(3927 °C, ​7101 °F).
• The electron addiction value of boron atoms is –27kj mol –1.
• The number of valency and valence electrons of a boron atom is 3.
• Boron forms both covalent and ionic bonds.
• The ionic energy (E) of the boron atom is greater than that of the s-block element.
• 3 electrons exist in the last orbit of the boron.
• Boron is used as a semiconductor.
• Boron conducts heat and is slightly electrically conductive.

## Conclusion

The atomic number of boron is 5. The atomic number of an element is the number of electrons in that element. Therefore, the number of electrons in the boron is 5. The main topic of this article is the boron electron configuration with Orbital Diagram.

Boron is the 2nd period of the periodic table and the group-13 element. This article discusses the electron configuration of boron atoms, period-groups, valency(valence) and valence electrons, compound formation, Covalent properties of boron, properties of the boron atom.

## FAQ

How do you write the electron configuration for boron?
Ans: Boron Electron configuration is B(5) = 1s2 2s2 2p1.

What is the electron configuration for boron atomic number 5?
Ans: The electron configuration for boron atomic number 5 is 1s2 2s2 2p1.

What is the symbol for boron?
Ans: The symbol for boron is ‘B’.

How many valence electrons does boron(B) have?
Ans:  The valence electrons of boron are three.