Nitrogen Electron Configuration and Full Orbital Diagram

Nitrogen electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p3. The electron configuration of nitrogen shows that the period of nitrogen is 2 and nitrogen is an p-block element. Nitrogen electron configuration with an orbital diagram is the main topic of this article.

The seventh element in the periodic table is nitrogen. The atomic number of nitrogen is 7 and total number of electrons in nitrogen atom is seven. These electrons are arranged according to specific rules of different orbits.

The position of the electrons in different energy levels of the atom and the orbital in a certain order is called electron configuration. Electron configuration is done in 2 ways of all the elements of the periodic table. That’s why, Nitrogen electron configuration can be done in 2 ways.

  1. Electron configuration via orbit.
  2. Electron configuration via orbital.

Nitrogen electron configuration via orbit

Scientist  Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit. These orbits are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit, L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit. The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now,

  • n = 1 for K orbit.
    The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.
  • For L orbit, n = 2.
    The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.
  • n=3 for M orbit.
    The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 3= 18 electrons.
  • n=4 for N orbit.
    The maximum electron holding capacity in N orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 32 electrons.

The atomic number is the number of electrons in that element. The atomic number of nitrogen is 7. That is, the number of electrons in nitrogen is 7.

Therefore, the maximum electron holding capacity in the first orbit is 2. And the maximum electron holding capacity in the second orbit is 8. In the electron configuration of nitrogen, The total number of electrons in a nitrogen atom is 7.

Therefore, the two electrons of nitrogen will be in the first orbit. And the other five electrons will be in the second orbit. The order of electron configuration of nitrogen atoms through orbits is 2, 5. Therefore, nitrogen has electrons per shell 2, 5.

Nitrogen Electron Configuration

The electron configuration of Nitrogen atom through orbital

Atomic energy levels are subdivided into sub-energy levels. These sub-energy levels are called orbital. The sub energy levels are expressed by ‘l’. The value of ‘l’ is from 0 to (n – 1). The sub-energy levels are known as s, p, d, f.

Determining the value of ‘l’ for different energy levels is-

If n = 1,
(n – 1) = (1–1) = 0
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 1; And the orbital is 1 s.

If n = 2,
(n – 1) = (2–1) = 1.
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 2; And the orbital is 2s, 2p.

If n = 3,
(n – 1) = (3–1) = 2.
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 3; And the orbital is 3s, 3p, 3d.

If n = 4,
(n – 1) = (4–1) = 3
Therefore, the orbital number of ‘l’ is 4; And the orbital is 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f.

If n = 5,
(n – 1) = (n – 5) = 4.

Therefore, l = 0,1,2,3,4. The number of orbitals will be 5 but 4s, 4p, 4d, 4f in these four orbitals it is possible to arrange the electrons of all the elements of the periodic table. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

Nitrogen electron configuration in the Aufbau principle

The German physicist Aufbau first proposed the idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level. These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’.

electron configuration
Electron Configuration

The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14. 

The Aufbau electron configuration method is 1 s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d. The nitrogen electron configuration in the Aufbau principle is 1s2 2s2 2p3.

Electron configuration of Nitrogen in the Hund principle

Another method of electron configuration is the Hund principle. The German physicist Friedrich Hund provided a guideline for the entry of electrons into different orbitals of equal power. Which is known as the Hund principle.

The Hund principle is that when electrons enter the orbitals of equal power, the electrons will randomly enter the orbital as long as the orbital is empty. And the spin of these unpaired electrons will be one-sided. This principle applies to- p, d, f orbitals. The s-orbital does not support the Hund principle.

Normally nitrogen electron configuration is N(7) = 1s2 2s2 2p3. And in Hund’s principle, the electron configuration of nitrogen is 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1. The electron configuration of nitrogen in excited state is N*(7) = 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1.

The last orbital of nitrogen is p. And unpaired electrons exist in its last p-orbital. So. The nitrogen atom supports Hund principle.

Determination of group and period through the nitrogen electron configuration

The nitrogen electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p3. The last orbit of an element is the period of that element. The electron configuration of nitrogen atom shows that the last orbit of the nitrogen atom is 2(2s2 2p3). So, the period of nitrogen is 2.

Position of nitrogen in the periodic table
Position of nitrogen in the periodic table

On the other hand, the number of electrons present in the last orbit of an element is the number of groups in that element. But in the case of p-block elements, group diagnosis is different. To determine the group of p-block elements, the group has to be determined by adding 10 to the total number of electrons in the last orbit.

The total number of electrons in the last orbit of the nitrogen atom is 5. That is, the group number of nitrogen is 5 + 10 = 15. Therefore, we can say that the period of the nitrogen element is 2 and the group is 15.

Determining the block of Nitrogen by electron configuration

The elements in the periodic table are divided into 4 blocks based on the electron configuration of the element. The block of elements is determined based on the electron configuration of the element. If the last electron enters the p-orbital after the electron configuration of the element, then that element is called the p-block element.

The nitrogen electron configuration is 1s2 2s2 2p3. The electron configuration of nitrogen(N) shows that the last electron of nitrogen enters the p-orbital. Therefore, nitrogen is the p-block element.

Determination of the valency and valence electrons of nitrogen

valence electrons of nitrogen
Valence electrons of nitrogen

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency (valence). The number of unpaired electrons in the last orbit of an element is the valency of that element.

As we know, the electron configuration of nitrogen atom is normally 1s2 2s2 2p3. In the electron configuration for nitrogen, we see that 5 electrons exist in the last orbit of the nitrogen. Therefore, the valency(valence) of the nitrogen are 5.

Again, Valence is determined from the electron configuration of the element in the excited state. The electron configuration of nitrogen in excited state is N*(7) = 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1.

Here, the electron configuration of nitrogen shows that 3 unpaired electrons exist. In this case, the valency of the nitrogen atom is 3.

Valency of nitrogen
Valency of nitrogen

Again, the number of electrons in the last orbit of an element, the number of those electrons is the valence electrons of that element. In the electron configuration for nitrogen, we see that 5 electrons exist in the last orbit of the nitrogen.

Therefore, the valence electrons of the nitrogen are 5. Finally, we can say that the valency(valence) of the nitrogen are 3, 5, and the valence electrons of the nitrogen is 5.

Ionic properties of nitrogen atoms

The electron configuration of nitrogen atom is 1s2 2s2 2p3. Nitrogen is an anion element. When a charge-neutral atom receives an electron and turns it into a negative ion, it is called an anion. The last orbit of a nitrogen atom has 5 electrons. The nitrogen atom takes 3 electrons to fill the octave and become an anion.

N + (3e) → N3–

Nitrogen atoms take on electrons and turn into negative ions. The electron configuration of nitrogen ions(N3–) is 1s2 2s2 2p6. Therefore, nitrogen is an anion element.

Covalent bond formation of nitrogen atoms

Nitrogen atoms form covalent bonds with different atoms. One of them is hydrogen. Nitrogen atoms form covalent bonds with hydrogen atoms. And forms NH3 compounds through covalent bonds. The electron configuration of nitrogen and hydrogen atoms-

Nitrogen electron configuration is N(7) = 1s2 2s2 2p3.
And the electron configuration of Hydrogen is H(1) = 1s1.

The electron configuration of nitrogen shows that 5 electron exists in the last orbit of the nitrogen atom. The nitrogen atom wants to fill the octave by taking 3 electrons in its last orbit.

Again, the electron configuration of hydrogen shows that there is 1 electron in the last orbital of the hydrogen atom. The hydrogen atom wants to fill the electron in the first orbit by taking 1 electron.

Three hydrogen atoms join one nitrogen atom to form a covalent bond through electron sharing. And forms NH3 compounds through covalent bonds.

Formation of Nitrogen compound

Formation of nitride compounds

Nitrogen atoms react with oxygen to produce nitroxide.
N2 + O2 → 2NO
2NO + O2 → 2NO2

Nitrogen and oxygen atoms combine to form oxides like N2O, N2O3, N2O4, N2O5 etc. Among these oxides are N2O, NO are neutral oxides, and N2O3, N2O4, N2O5 are acidic oxides.

Formation of hydride compounds

At high pressures and high temperatures (200atm and 500 ° C) nitrogen atoms combine with hydrogen atoms to form hydride compounds.

N2 + 3H2 → 2NH3

Nitrogen atomic reaction with metal

In the heated state, nitrogen atoms react with calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), and aluminum (Al) metals to form nitride compounds.

3Ca + N2 (heat) → Ca3N2
3Mg + N2 (heat) → 2Mg3N2
2Al + N2 (heat) → 2AlN

But lithium(Li) metal reacts with N2 at normal temperature to form a lithium nitride compound.

6Li + N2 → 2Li3N

Metal nitride hydrolysis by water to form NH3 and metallic hydroxide.

Ca3N2 + 6H2O (heat) → 3Ca(OH)2 + 2NH3
Li3N + 3H2O → 3LiOH + NH3

The reaction of nitrogen with halogen

The element nitrogen of group-15 reacts with halogen atoms to form tri-halide compounds.

N2 + 3F2 → 2NF3
N2 + 3Cl2 → 2NCl3
N2 + 3Br2 → 2NBr3
N2 + 3I2 → 2NI3

Other elements of group-15 form Penta halides but do not form nitrogen atoms. Because the d-orbital is missing in the nitrogen atom.

Properties of Nitrogen Atoms

  • The atomic number of nitrogen atoms is 7. The atomic number of an element is the number of electrons and protons in that element. That is, the number of electrons and protons in the nitrogen atom is 7.
  • The active atomic mass of the nitrogen atom is [14.00643, 14.00728].
  • Nitrogen is a non-metal.
  • The valency(valence) of a nitrogen atom is 3, 5 and the valence electrons of a nitrogen atom are 5.
  • Nitrogen atoms are the 2nd period of the periodic table and an element of the 15-group.
  • At normal temperatures nitrogen molecules remain in the form of gases.
  • Nitrogen is an anion element.
  • Nitrogen atoms form covalent bonds.
  • Nitrogen is the p-block element.
  • The melting point of a Nitrogen atom is –209°C and the boiling point is –195°C.
  • The electronegativity of Nitrogen atoms is  3.04 (Pauling scale).
  • Nitrogen forms N2O and NO neutral oxides. But NO2 forms acidic oxide.
  • The oxidation states of Nitrogen are –3, 2, 3, 4, 5
  • The atomic radius of a Nitrogen atom is 56 pm.
  • Nitrogen atom van der Waals radius is 155 pm
  • Ionization energies of nitrogen atoms are 1st: 1402.3 kJ/mol, 2nd: 2856 kJ/mol, 3rd: 4578.1 kJ/mol .
  • The electron addiction of nitrogen atoms is –7 kJ/mol
  • The covalent radius of the nitrogen atom is 71±1 pm

Conclusion

The atomic number of nitrogen is 7. The atomic number of an element is the number of electrons in that element. Therefore, the number of electrons in the nitrogen is 7. The main topic of this article is the nitrogen electron configuration with Orbital Diagram.

Nitrogen is the 2nd period of the periodic table and the group-15 element. This article discusses the electron configuration of nitrogen atoms, period-groups, valency and valence electrons, compound formation, Covalent properties of nitrogen, properties of the nitrogen atom.

FAQ

What is the electron configuration of nitrogen?
Ans: Nitrogen Electron configuration is N(7) = 1s2 2s2 2p3.

What is the electron configuration for nitrogen atomic number 7?
Ans: The electron configuration for nitrogen atomic number 7 is 1s2 2s2 2p3.

What is the valence electron configuration for the nitrogen atom?
Ans: Five valence electrons.

How can nitrogen become stable electron configuration?
Ans: The last orbit of a nitrogen atom has 5 electrons. The nitrogen atom takes 3 electrons to fill the octave and become stable. The electron configuration of nitrogen ions(N3–) is 1s2 2s2 2p6.

How does nitrogen gain electron noble gas configuration?
Ans: The last orbit of a nitrogen atom has 5 electrons. The nitrogen atom takes 3 electrons to fill the octave and become gain electron noble gas configuration.

How many valence electron in nitrogen?
Ans: Five valence electrons.

Reference

  • Wikipedia
  • Lide, David R. (1990–1991). CRC Handbook of Physics and Chemistry (71st ed.). Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, Boston: CRC Press, inc. pp. 4-22

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