How many valence electrons does nitrogen(N) have?

The last shell of nitrogen has five electrons, so the valence electrons of nitrogen have five. Nitrogen participates in the formation of bonds through valence electrons. This article discusses in detail the valence electrons of nitrogen.

What are the valence electrons of nitrogen(N)?

The total number of electrons in the last shell after the electron configuration of nitrogen is called the valence electrons of nitrogen. The valence electron is the total number of electrons in the last orbit.

The valence electrons determine the properties of the element and participate in the formation of bonds. The seventh element in the periodic table is nitrogen. That is, the atom of the nitrogen element has a total of seven electrons.

valence electrons of nitrogen
Valence electrons of nitrogen

The electron configuration of nitrogen shows that the last shell of nitrogen has a total of five electrons. That is, we can easily say that the valence electrons of nitrogen are five. There is an article on this site detailing the electron configuration of nitrogen, you can read it if you want.

How many electrons and protons does the nitrogen atom have?

The nucleus is located in the center of the atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The atomic number of nitrogen is 7. The atomic number is the number of protons.

That is, the number of protons in the nitrogen is 7. Electrons equal to protons are located in a circular shell outside the nucleus. That is, nitrogen atoms have a total of seven electrons.

How to determine the valence electron of nitrogen?

Now we will know how to easily determine the valence electron of nitrogen . The valence electron has to be determined by following a few steps. The electron configuration is one of them.

It is not possible to determine the valence electron without electron configuration. Knowing the electron configuration in the right way, it is very easy to determine the valence electrons of all the elements.

There is an article published on this site detailing the electron configuration, you can read it if you want. However, this article briefly discusses electron configuration.

Scientist  Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit( shell). These orbits(shell) are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

Scientist  Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit( shell). These orbits(shell) are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit(shell), L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit(shell). The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now,
n = 1 for K orbit.
The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.

For L orbit, n = 2.
The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.

electron configuration
Electron Configuration

In addition to this method, electron configuration can be done through sub-orbits. The German physicist Aufbau first proposed an idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits.

The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level. These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’. The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital.

These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

However, valence electrons can be easily identified by arranging electrons according to the Bohr principle. Now we will learn how to determine the valence electron of nitrogen.

Step-1 First we need to know the total number of electrons in the nitrogen atom. To know the number of electrons, you need to know the number of protons in nitrogen.

And to know the number of protons, you need to know the atomic number of the nitrogen element. To know the atomic number we need to take the help of a periodic table. It is necessary to know the atomic number of nitrogen elements from the periodic table.

Position of nitrogen in the periodic table
Position of nitrogen in the periodic table

The atomic number is the number of protons. And electrons equal to protons are located outside the nucleus. That is, we can finally say that there are electrons equal to the atomic number in the nitrogen atom.

From the periodic table, we see that the atomic number of nitrogen is 7. That is, a nitrogen atom has a total of seven electrons.

Step-2 : Step 2 is very important. In this step, the electrons of nitrogen have to be arranged. We know that nitrogen atoms have a total of seven electrons.

The electron configuration of nitrogen shows that there are two electrons in the K shell and five in the L shell. That is, the first shell of nitrogen has two and the second shell has five electrons. The electron configuration of nitrogen through the sub-orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p3.

Nitrogen Electron Configuration
Nitrogen Electron Configuration

Step-3 : The third step is to diagnose the valence shell. The last shell after the electron configuration is called the valence shell. The total number of electrons in a valence shell is called a valence electron.

The electron configuration of nitrogen shows that the last shell of nitrogen has five electrons. Therefore, the valence electrons of nitrogen are five. In this way, the valence electrons of all the elements can be determined.

Determination of the valency of nitrogen

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency (valence). The number of unpaired electrons in the last orbit of an element is the valency of that element. As we know, the electron configuration of nitrogen atom is normally 1s2 2s2 2p3.

In the electron configuration for nitrogen, we see that 5 electrons exist in the last orbit of the nitrogen. Therefore, the valency(valence) of the nitrogen are 5.

Valency of nitrogen
Valency of nitrogen

Again, Valence is determined from the electron configuration of the element in the excited state. The electron configuration of nitrogen in excited state is N*(7) = 1s2 2s2 2px1 2py1 2pz1. Here, the electron configuration of nitrogen shows that 3 unpaired electrons exist. In this case, the valency of the nitrogen atom is 3.

How many valence electrons does nitrogen ion have?

After arranging the electrons, it is seen that the last shell of the nitrogen atom has five electrons. In this case, the valence electrons of nitrogen are 5. We know the details about this.

The elements that have 5, 6, or seven electrons in the last shell(orbit) receive the electrons in the last shell during bond formation. The elements that receive electrons and form bonds are called anions. That is, nitrogen is an anion element.

N + 3e → N3-

During the formation of nitrogen bonds, the last shell receives electrons and turns them into nitrogen ions. The electron configuration of nitrogen ions is 1s2 2s2 2p6.

The electron configuration of nitrogen ions shows that nitrogen ions have two shells and the second shell has eight electrons. The electron configuration shows that the nitrogen ion has acquired the electron configuration of neon.

That is, in this case, the valence of nitrogen ions is -3. Since the last shell of a nitrogen ion has 8 electrons, the valence electrons of nitrogen ion( N3-) is eight.

Compound formation of nitrogen by valence electrons

Nitrogen participates in the formation of bonds through its valence electrons. We know that the valence electrons in nitrogen are five. This valence electron participates in the formation of bonds with atoms of other elements.

Nitrogen atoms form bonds by sharing electrons with hydrogen atoms. The electron configuration of hydrogen shows that hydrogen has only one electron. Three hydrogen atoms and one nitrogen atom make NH3 compounds by sharing electrons.

As a result, the nitrogen atom completes its octave and acquires the electron configuration of neon. On the other hand, hydrogen acquires the electron configuration of helium. Therefore, one nitrogen atom shares electrons with 3 hydrogen atoms to form the NH3 compound through covalent bonding.

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