Magnesium(Mg) is the 12th element in the periodic table and its symbol is ‘Mg’. The electron configuration of magnesium(Mg) and the orbital diagram is the main topic of this article. Also, valency and valence electrons of magnesium, various reactions, and compound formation, bond formation of magnesium have been discussed. Hopefully, after reading this article you will know in detail about this.
The total number of electrons in magnesium is twelve. These electrons are arranged according to specific rules of different orbits. The arrangement of electrons in different orbits and orbitals of an atom in a certain order is called electron configuration. The electron configuration of magnesium atoms can be done in two ways.
- Electron configuration through orbit
- Electron configuration through orbital
Electron configuration through orbitals follows different principles. For example, Aufbau principle, Hund’s principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle. There is an article published on this site detailing the electron configuration, you can read it if you want.
Magnesium(Mg) electron configuration through orbit
Scientist Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit(shell). These orbits are expressed by n. [n = 1,2,3,4 . . . The serial number of the orbit]
K is the name of the first orbit, L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit. The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2.
- n = 1 for K orbit.
The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.
- For L orbit, n = 2.
The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.
- n=3 for M orbit.
The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 18 electrons.
- n=4 for N orbit.
The maximum electron holding capacity in N orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 42 = 32 electrons.
Therefore, the maximum electron holding capacity in the first shell is two, the second shell is eight and the 3rd shell can have a maximum of eighteen electrons. The atomic number is the number of electrons in that element. The atomic number of magnesium(Mg) is 12. That is, the number of electrons in magnesium is twelve. Therefore, the magnesium atom will have two electrons in the first shell, eight in the 2nd orbit, and two electrons in the 3rd shell. Therefore, the order of the number of electrons in each shell of a magnesium atom is 2, 8, 2.
Electrons can be arranged correctly through orbits from elements 1 to 18. The electron configuration of an element with an atomic number greater than 18 cannot be properly determined according to the Bohr model. The electron configuration of all the elements can be done through orbital diagrams.
Electron configuration of magnesium(Mg) atom through the orbital diagram
The German physicist Aufbau first proposed an idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level. These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’. The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14. The Aufbau electron configuration method is 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d.
The first two electrons of magnesium enter the 1s orbital. The s-orbital can have a maximum of two electrons. Therefore, the next two electrons enter the 2s orbital. The p-orbital can have a maximum of six electrons. So, the next six electrons enter the 2p orbital and the remaining two electrons enter the 3s-orbital. Therefore, the magnesium(Mg) electron configuration will be 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2.
Electron configuration of magnesium ion(Mg2+)
Ground state electron configuration of magnesium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2. After the electron configuration, the last shell of the magnesium atom has two electrons. In this case, the valency and valence electrons of magnesium are 2. The elements that have 1, 2, or 3 electrons in the last shell donate the electrons in the last shell during bond formation. Magnesium donates the electron of the last shell to form bonds and turns into magnesium ions. The elements that form bonds by donating electrons are called cations. That is, magnesium is a cation element.
Mg – 2e– → Mg2+
The electron configuration of magnesium ions(Mg+2) is 1s2 2s2 2p6.
How do you write the electron configuration for magnesium?
Ans: Magnesium(Mg) electron configuration is 1s22s22p63s2.
How many electrons does magnesium have?
Ans: 12 electrons.
How many valence electrons does magnesium(Mg) have?
Ans: Two valence electrons.
What is the symbol for magnesium(Mg)?
Ans: The symbol for magnesium is ‘Mg’.