How many valence electrons does magnesium(Mg) have?

The 12th element in the periodic table is magnesium(Mg). Magnesium is an alkaline earth metal and, its symbol is ‘Mg’. Magnesium participates in the formation of bonds through valence electrons. This article discusses in detail the valence electrons of magnesium.

What are the valence electrons of magnesium(Mg)?

The second element in group-2 is magnesium(Mg). All the elements of group-2 are called alkaline earth metals. Therefore, magnesium is an alkaline earth metal. The valence electron is the total number of electrons in the last orbit.

The total number of electrons in the last shell after the electron configuration of magnesium is called the valence electrons of magnesium(Mg). The valence electrons determine the properties of the element and participate in the formation of bonds.

valence electrons of magnesium
Valence electrons of magnesium

The twelfth element in the periodic table is magnesium(Mg). That is, the atom of the magnesium element has a total of twelve electrons. The electron configuration of magnesium shows that the last shell(orbit) of magnesium has a total of two electrons.

That is, we can easily say that the valence electrons of magnesium are two. There is an article on this site detailing the electron configuration of magnesium, you can read it if you want.

How many electrons and protons does magnesium(Mg) have?

The nucleus is located in the center of the atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The atomic number of magnesium(Mg) is 12. The atomic number is the number of protons.

That is, the number of protons in magnesium(Mg) is twelve. Electrons equal to protons are located in a circular shell outside the nucleus. That is, a magnesium atom has a total of twelve electrons.

How to determine the valence electron of magnesium(Mg)?

Now we will know how to easily determine the valence electrons of magnesium(Mg). The valence electron has to be determined by following a few steps. The electron configuration is one of them. It is not possible to determine the valence electron without electron configuration.

Knowing the electron configuration in the right way, it is very easy to determine the valence electrons of all the elements. There is an article published on this site detailing the electron configuration, you can read it if you want. However, this article briefly discusses electron configuration.

Scientist Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit(shell). He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit(shell). These orbits are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit(shell), L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit(shell). The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now,
n = 1 for K orbit. The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.

For L orbit, n = 2. The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.

n=3 for M orbit. The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 18 electrons.

electron configuration
Electron Configuration

In addition to this method, electron configuration can be done through sub-orbits. The German physicist Aufbau first proposed an idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level.

These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’. The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

However, valence electrons can be easily identified by arranging electrons according to the Bohr principle. Now we will learn how to determine the valence electron of magnesium(Mg).

Step 1 – First we need to know the total number of electrons in the magnesium(Mg) atom. To know the number of electrons, you need to know the number of protons in magnesium. And to know the number of protons, you need to know the atomic number of the magnesium element.

Position of magnesium(Mg) in the periodic table
Position of magnesium(Mg) in the periodic table

To know the atomic number we need to take the help of a periodic table. It is necessary to know the atomic number of magnesium elements from the periodic table. The atomic number is the number of protons. And electrons equal to protons are located outside the nucleus.

That is, we can finally say that there are electrons equal to the atomic number in the magnesium atom. From the periodic table, we see that the atomic number of magnesium is 12. That is, a magnesium(Mg) atom has a total of twelve electrons.

Step 2 – Step 2 is very important. In this step, the electrons of magnesium(Mg) have to be arranged. We know that magnesium atoms have a total of twelve electrons. The electron configuration of magnesium shows that there are two electrons in the K shell, eight in the L shell, and two in the M shell(orbit).

magnesium electron configuration
Magnesium electron configuration

That is, the first shell of magnesium has two electrons, the second shell has eight electrons and the 3rd shell(orbit) has two electrons. The electron configuration of magnesium(Mg) through the sub-orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2.

Step 3 – The third step is to diagnose the valence shell(orbit). The last shell after the electron configuration is called the valence shell(orbit). The total number of electrons in a valence shell is called a valence electron.

The electron configuration of magnesium(Mg) shows that the last shell of magnesium has two electrons. Therefore, the valence electrons of magnesium are two. In this way, the valence electrons of all the elements can be determined.

Determination of the valency of magnesium(Mg)

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency(valence). There are some rules for diagnosing valency. The number of electrons in an unpaired state in the last orbital after the electron configuration of an atom is called the valency(valence) of that element.

Valency and valence electrons of magnesium
Valency and valence electrons of magnesium

The electron configuration of magnesium(Mg) is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2. The electron configuration of magnesium shows that it has two unpaired electrons in the last orbital. Therefore, the valency(valence) of magnesium is 2.

How many valence electrons does magnesium ion(Mg+2) have?

After the electron configuration, the last shell of the magnesium atom has two electrons. In this case, the valence(valency) of magnesium is 2. We know the details about this. The elements that have 1, 2, or three electrons in the last shell(orbit) donate the electrons in the last shell during bond formation.

The elements that form bonds by donating electrons are called cations. That is, magnesium is a cation element. Magnesium donates the electron of the last shell to form bonds and turns into magnesium ions.

Mg – 2e → Mg+2

The electron configuration of magnesium ions is 1s2 2s2 2p6. The electron configuration of magnesium-ion shows that magnesium ions have only two shells and that shell has eight electrons. The electron configuration shows that the magnesium atom has acquired the electron configuration of neon.

That is, in this case, the valence(valency) of the magnesium-ion is +2. Since the last shell(orbit) of a magnesium-ion has eight electrons, the valence electrons of magnesium-ion are eight.

Compound formation of magnesium(Mg)

Magnesium participates in the formation of bonds through its valence electrons. We know that the valence electrons in magnesium(Mg) are two. This valence electron participates in the formation of bonds with atoms of other elements.

The electron configuration of oxygen shows that the valence electrons of oxygen are six. The magnesium atom donates its valence electrons to the oxygen atom and the oxygen atom receives those electrons.

As a result, oxygen acquires the electron configuration of neon, and magnesium atoms also acquire the electron configuration of neon. Magnesium oxide(MgO) is formed by the exchange of electrons between one atom of magnesium and one atom of oxygen. Magnesium oxide(MgO) is ionic bonding.

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *