How many valence electrons does oxygen(O) have?

The valence electrons of oxygen are six. Oxygen is the eighth element of the periodic table and the symbol is ‘O’. Oxygen participates in the formation of bonds through valence electrons. This article discusses in detail the valence electrons of oxygen.

What are the valence electrons of oxygen(O)?

Oxygen is a non-metallic element. Oxygen is an element of group-16. The valence electron is the total number of electrons in the last orbit. The total number of electrons in the last shell after the electron configuration of oxygen is called the valence electrons of oxygen.

The valence electrons determine the properties of the element and participate in the formation of bonds. The eighth element in the periodic table is oxygen. That is, the atom of the oxygen element has a total of eight electrons.

valence electrons of oxygen
Valence electrons of oxygen

The electron configuration of oxygen shows that the last shell of oxygen has a total of six electrons. That is, we can easily say that the valence electrons of oxygen are six. There is an article on this site detailing the electron configuration of oxygen, you can read it if you want.

How many electrons and protons does the oxygen atom have?

The nucleus is located in the center of the atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The atomic number of oxygen is 8. The atomic number is the number of protons. That is, the number of protons in the oxygen is 8. Electrons equal to protons are located in a circular shell outside the nucleus. That is, oxygen atoms have a total of eight electrons.

How to determine the valence electron of oxygen?

Now we will know how to easily determine the valence electron of oxygen. The valence electron has to be determined by following a few steps. The electron configuration is one of them. It is not possible to determine the valence electron without electron configuration. Knowing the electron configuration in the right way, it is very easy to determine the valence electrons of all the elements. There is an article published on this site detailing the electron configuration, you can read it if you want. However, this article briefly discusses electron configuration.

Scientist Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit( shell). These orbits(shell) are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

Scientist Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit( shell). These orbits(shell) are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit(shell), L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit(shell). The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now, n = 1 for K orbit. The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.

For L orbit, n = 2. The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.

electron configuration
Electron Configuration

In addition to this method, electron configuration can be done through sub-orbits. The German physicist Aufbau first proposed an idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level. These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’. The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

However, valence electrons can be easily identified by arranging electrons according to the Bohr principle. Now we will learn how to determine the valence electron of oxygen.

Step-1: First we need to know the total number of electrons in the oxygen atom. To know the number of electrons, you need to know the number of protons in oxygen. And to know the number of protons, you need to know the atomic number of the oxygen element. To know the atomic number we need to take the help of a periodic table. It is necessary to know the atomic number of oxygen elements from the periodic table.

position of oxygen in the periodic table
Position of oxygen in the periodic table

The atomic number is the number of protons. And electrons equal to protons are located outside the nucleus. That is, we can finally say that there are electrons equal to the atomic number in the oxygen atom. From the periodic table, we see that the atomic number of oxygen is 8. That is, an oxygen atom has a total of eight electrons.

Step-2: Step 2 is very important. In this step, the electrons of oxygen have to be arranged. We know that oxygen atoms have a total of eight electrons. The electron configuration of oxygen shows that there are two electrons in the K shell and six in the L shell. That is, the first shell of oxygen has two and the second shell has six electrons. The electron configuration of oxygen through the sub-orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p4.

Oxygen Electron Configuration
Oxygen Electron Configuration

Step-3: The third step is to diagnose the valence shell. The last shell after the electron configuration is called the valence shell. The total number of electrons in a valence shell is called a valence electron. The electron configuration of oxygen shows that the last shell of oxygen has six electrons. Therefore, the valence electrons of oxygen are six. In this way, the valence electrons of all the elements can be determined.

Determination of the valency of oxygen

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency(valence). The number of unpaired electrons in the last orbit of an element is the valency(valence) of that element. The electron configuration of oxygen in excited state is O*(8) = 1s2 2s2 2px2 2py1 2pz1.

valency of oxygen
Valency of oxygen

The electron configuration of oxygen(O) shows that there are 2 unpaired electrons in the last orbit of oxygen. Therefore, the valency(valence) of the oxygen is 2.

How many valence electrons does oxygen ion have?

After the electron configuration, the last shell of the oxygen atom has six electrons. After arranging the electrons, it is seen that the last shell of the oxygen atom has six electrons. In this case, the valence electrons of oxygen are 6. We know the details about this. The elements that have 5, 6, or seven electrons in the last shell(orbit) receive the electrons in the last shell during bond formation. The elements that receive electrons and form bonds are called anions. That is, oxygen is an anion element.

O + 2e → O-2

During the formation of oxygen bonds, the last shell receives electrons and turns them into oxygen ions. The electron configuration of oxygen ions is 1s2 2s2 2p6. The electron configuration of oxygen ions shows that oxygen ions have two shells and the second shell has eight electrons. The electron configuration shows that the oxygen ion has acquired the electron configuration of neon. That is, in this case, the valence(valency) of oxygen ions is -2. Since the last shell of an oxygen ion has 8 electrons, the valence electron of oxygen ion are eight.

Compound formation of oxygen by valence electrons

Oxygen participates in the formation of bonds through its valence electrons. We know that the valence electrons in oxygen are six. This valence electron participates in the formation of bonds with atoms of other elements. Oxygen atoms form bonds by sharing electrons with hydrogen atoms.

water molecule structure
Water molecule structure

The electron configuration of hydrogen shows that hydrogen has only one electron. Two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom make H2O compounds by sharing electrons. As a result, the oxygen atom completes its octave and acquires the electron configuration of neon.

On the other hand, hydrogen acquires the electron configuration of helium. Therefore, one oxygen atom shares electrons with two hydrogen atoms to form the H2O(water) compound through covalent bonding.

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