How many valence electrons does beryllium(Be) have?

The valence electrons of beryllium are two. Beryllium is the fourth element of the periodic table and the symbol is ‘Be’. Beryllium participates in the formation of bonds through valence electrons. This article discusses in detail the valence electrons of beryllium.

What are the valence electrons of beryllium(Be)?

The total number of electrons in the last shell after the electron configuration of beryllium is called the valence electrons of beryllium. The valence electron is the total number of electrons in the last orbit.

The valence electrons determine the properties of the element and participate in the formation of bonds. The fourth element in the periodic table is beryllium. That is, the atom of the beryllium element has a total of four electrons.

valence electrons of beryllium
Valence Electrons of Beryllium

The electron configuration of beryllium shows that the last shell of beryllium has a total of two electrons. That is, we can easily say that the valence electrons of beryllium are two. There is an article on this site detailing the electron configuration of beryllium, you can read it if you want.

How many electrons and protons does beryllium have?

The nucleus is located in the center of the atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The atomic number of beryllium is 4. The atomic number is the number of protons. That is, the number of protons in beryllium is 4. Electrons equal to protons are located in a circular shell outside the nucleus. That is, beryllium atoms have 4 electrons.

How to determine the valence electron is beryllium?

Now we will know how to easily determine the valence electron of beryllium. The valence electron has to be determined by following a few steps. The electron configuration is one of them. It is not possible to determine the valence electron without electron configuration. Knowing the electron configuration in the right way, it is very easy to determine the valence electrons of all the elements. There is an article published on this site detailing the electron configuration, you can read it if you want. However, this article briefly discusses electron configuration.

Scientist  Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit( shell). These orbits(shell) are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit(shell), L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit(shell). The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now,
n = 1 for K orbit.
The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.

For L orbit, n = 2.
The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.

electron configuration
Electron Configuration

In addition to this method, electron configuration can be done through sub-orbits. The German physicist Aufbau first proposed an idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level. These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’. The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

However, valence electrons can be easily identified by arranging electrons according to the Bohr principle. Now we will learn how to determine the valence electron of beryllium.

Step 1 – First we need to know the total number of electrons in the beryllium atom. To know the number of electrons, you need to know the number of protons in beryllium. And to know the number of protons, you need to know the atomic number of the beryllium element. To know the atomic number we need to take the help of a periodic table. It is necessary to know the atomic number of beryllium elements from the periodic table.

position of beryllium in the periodic table
Position of beryllium in the periodic table

The atomic number is the number of protons. And electrons equal to protons are located outside the nucleus. That is, we can finally say that there are electrons equal to the atomic number in the beryllium atom. From the periodic table, we see that the atomic number of beryllium is 4. That is, a beryllium atom has a total of four electrons.

Step 2 – Step 2 is very important. In this step, the electrons of beryllium have to be arranged. We know that beryllium atoms have a total of four electrons. The electron configuration of beryllium shows that there are two electrons in the K shell and two in the L shell. That is, the first shell of beryllium has two and the second shell has two electrons. The electron configuration of beryllium through the sub-orbit is 1s2 2s2.

beryllium electron configuration

Step 3 – The third step is to diagnose the valence shell. The last shell after the electron configuration is called the valence shell. The total number of electrons in a valence shell is called a valence electron. The electron configuration of beryllium shows that the last shell of beryllium has two electrons. Therefore, the valence electrons of beryllium are two. In this way, the valence electrons of all the elements can be determined.

Determination of the valency of beryllium

The ability to bind one atom to another and form compounds is called valency(valence). There are some rules for diagnosing valency. The number of electrons in an unpaired state in the last orbital after the electron configuration of an atom is called the valency of that element. The electron configuration of beryllium is 1s2 2s2. The electron configuration of beryllium shows that beryllium has two unpaired electrons in the last orbital. Therefore, the valency(valence) of beryllium is 2.

valence electrons of beryllium
valence electrons of beryllium

How many valence electrons of beryllium ion have?

After the electron configuration, the last shell of the beryllium atom has two electrons. In this case, both the valence and valence electrons of beryllium are 2. We know the details about this. The elements that have 1, 2, or three electrons in the last shell donate the electrons in the last shell during bond formation.

The elements that form bonds by donating electrons are called cations. That is, beryllium is a cation element. Beryllium donates the electrons of the last shell to form bonds and turns into beryllium ions.

Be – 2e → Be+2

The electron configuration of beryllium ions is 1s2. The electron configuration of beryllium ion shows that beryllium ion has only one shell and that shell has total of two electrons. The electron configuration shows that the beryllium atom has acquired the electron configuration of helium. That is, in this case, the valence of the beryllium-ion is +2. Since the last shell of a beryllium-ion has two electrons, the valence electrons of a beryllium-ion are two.

Compound formation of beryllium by valence electrons

Beryllium participates in the formation of bonds through its valence electrons. We know that the valence electrons in beryllium are two. This valence electron participates in the formation of bonds with atoms of other elements. The electron configuration of fluorine shows that the valence electrons of fluorine are seven.

The beryllium atom donates its valence electrons to the fluorine atom and the fluorine atom receives those electrons. As a result, fluorine acquires the electron configuration of neon and the beryllium atom acquires the electron configuration of helium. BeF2 is formed by the exchange of electrons between one atom of beryllium and two atoms of fluorine. BeF2 bonding is ionic bonding.

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