The 1st element of the periodic table is hydrogen. The element of group-1 is hydrogen and its symbol is ‘H’. Hydrogen forms bonds through its valence electrons. This article discusses in detail the valence electrons of hydrogen. Hopefully, after reading this article you will know in detail about this.
How many protons, electrons, and neutrons does a hydrogen atom have?
The nucleus is located in the center of the atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The atomic number of hydrogen is 1. The atomic number is the number of protons. That is, the number of protons in the hydrogen is 1. Electrons equal to protons are located in a circular shell(orbit) outside the nucleus. That is, the hydrogen atom has a total of an electron.
The number of neutrons in an element is obtained from the difference between the number of atomic masses and the number of atoms. That is, neutron number (n) = atomic mass number (A) – atomic number (Z)
We know that the atomic number of hydrogen is 1 and the atomic mass number is about 1(1.0080u). Neutron (n) = 1 – 1 = 0. Therefore, the number of neutrons in hydrogen is 0.
What are the valence electrons of hydrogen?
The valence electrons are the total number of electrons in the last orbit(shell). The total number of electrons in the last shell after the electron configuration of hydrogen is called the valence electrons of hydrogen. The valence electrons determine the properties of the element and participate in the formation of bonds.
How do you calculate the number of valence electrons in a hydrogen atom?
The valence electrons have to be determined by following a few steps. The electron configuration is one of them. It is not possible to determine the valence electron without electron configuration. Knowing the electron configuration in the right way, it is very easy to determine the valence electrons of all the elements.
However, valence electrons can be easily identified by arranging electrons according to the Bohr principle. Now we will learn how to determine the valence electrons of hydrogen.
Step-1: Determining the total number of electrons in hydrogen
1st we need to know the total number of electrons in the hydrogen atom. To know the number of electrons, you need to know the number of protons in hydrogen. And to know the number of protons, you need to know the atomic number of the hydrogen element.
From the periodic table, we see that the atomic number of hydrogen(H) is 1. That is, the hydrogen atom has only an electron.
Step-2: Need to do electron configuration of hydrogen
Step-2 is very important. In this step, the electrons of hydrogen have to be arranged. We know that hydrogen atoms have only an electron. That is, the first shell of hydrogen has an electron.
Step-3: Determine the valence shell and calculate the total electrons
The third step is to diagnose the valence shell. The last shell after the electron configuration is called the valence shell. The total number of electrons in a valence shell is called valence electrons. The electron configuration shows that the last shell of hydrogen has an electron. Therefore, the valence electrons of hydrogen(H) are one.
What is the valency of hydrogen?
The ability of one atom to attract another atom during bonding and compound formation is called valency. The electrons in the last orbit of the atom participate in the formation of bonds or compounds. That is, valence electrons participate in the formation of compounds and bonds.
Atoms receive, leave, or share electrons during the formation of compounds or bonds. Having an electron, hydrogen can easily leave or share an electron. So, the valency of hydrogen is 1.
How many valence electrons does hydrogen ion(H+) have?
Elements that have 1, 2, or 3 electrons in their last orbit can easily turn into positive ions by donating electrons. Those atoms that donate electrons and turn into positive ions are called cations. Since the hydrogen atom has only an electron, hydrogen can easily leave the electron and turn into a positive ion.
H – e– → H+
After the hydrogen atom donates electrons, the last shell of hydrogen has no electrons. Therefore, the valence electron of a hydrogen ion is zero. On the other hand, hydrogen donates an electron to form a bond or compound. Therefore, the valency of hydrogen ions is 1.
Compound formation of hydrogen
Since the last shell of a hydrogen atom has an electron, it can easily form bonds with other elements by sharing electrons. The electron configuration of oxygen shows that the valence electrons of oxygen are six.
Oxygen and hydrogen atoms are non-metallic atoms. Oxygen and hydrogen atoms can form bonds through electron share. Two hydrogen atoms with an oxygen atom produce water(H2O) through electron share.
The hydrogen atom acquires the electron configuration of helium by sharing an electron with oxygen. As a result, the hydrogen atom gains the electron configuration of helium and comes to a stable state.
On the other hand, The oxygen atom acquires the electron configuration of neon by sharing the electron with the two hydrogen atoms and comes to a stable state. In this way, hydrogen and oxygen produce water through valence electron sharing.