How many valence electrons does potassium(K) have?

Potassium is the 19th element in the periodic table. Potassium is an alkali metal and its symbol is ‘K’. Potassium forms bonds through its valence electrons. This article discusses in detail the valence electron of potassium(K) atom.

How many electrons and protons does the potassium(K) atom have?

The nucleus is located in the center of the atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The atomic number of potassium(K) is 19. The atomic number is the number of protons.

That is, the number of protons in the potassium(K) is 19. Electrons equal to protons are located in a circular shell(orbit) outside the nucleus. That is, the potassium(K) atom has a total of nineteen electrons.

What are the valence electrons of potassium(K)?

Potassium is an alkali metal. Potassium(K) is an element of group-1. The valence electron is the total number of electrons in the last orbit(shell). The total number of electrons in the last shell(final shell) after the electron configuration of potassium is called the valence electrons of potassium(K).

Valence electrons of potassium
Valence electrons of potassium

The valence electrons determine the properties of the element and participate in the formation of bonds. The nineteenth element in the periodic table is potassium(K). That is, the atom of the potassium element has a total of nineteen electrons.

The electron configuration of potassium(K) shows that the last shell(orbit) of potassium has a total of one electron. That is, we can easily say that the valence electron of potassium is one. There is an article on this site detailing the electron configuration of potassium(K), you can read it if you want.

How to determine the valence electron of potassium(K)?

Now we will know how to easily determine the valence electrons of potassium(K). The valence electron has to be determined by following a few steps. The electron configuration is one of them. It is not possible to determine the valence electron without electron configuration.

Knowing the electron configuration in the right way, it is very easy to determine the valence electrons of all the elements. There is an article published on this site detailing the electron configuration, you can read it if you want. However, this article briefly discusses electron configuration.

Scientist Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there.

The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit( shell). These orbits(shell) are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit(shell), L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit(shell). The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2.

Now,

  • n = 1 for K orbit. The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.
  • For L orbit, n = 2. The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.
  • n=3 for M orbit. The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 18 electrons.
electron configuration
Electron Configuration

In addition to this method, electron configuration can be done through sub-orbits. The German physicist Aufbau first proposed an idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level. These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’.

The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

However, valence electrons can be easily identified by arranging electrons according to the Bohr principle. Now we will learn how to determine the valence electrons of potassium(K).

Step-1: Determining the total number of electrons

First, we need to know the total number of electrons in the potassium(K) atom. To know the number of electrons, you need to know the number of protons in potassium. And to know the number of protons, you need to know the atomic number of the potassium element.

To know the atomic number we need to take the help of a periodic table. It is necessary to know the atomic number of potassium(K) elements from the periodic table. The atomic number is the number of protons and electrons equal to protons located outside the nucleus.

Position of Potassium(K) in the periodic table
Position of Potassium(K) in the periodic table

That is, we can finally say that there are electrons equal to the atomic number in the potassium(K) atom. From the periodic table, we see that the atomic number of potassium(K) is 19. That is, a potassium(K) atom has a total of nineteen electrons.

Step-2: Need to do electron configuration

Step 2 is very important. In this step, the electrons of potassium(K) have to be arranged. We know that a potassium atom has a total of nineteen electrons. The electron configuration of potassium(K) shows that there are two electrons in the K shell, eight in the L shell, eight in the M shell, and one in the N shell(orbit).

Potassium electron configuration
Potassium electron configuration

That is, the first shell of potassium(K) has two electrons, the second shell has eight electrons, the 3rd shell has eight electrons and the 4th shell(last orbit) has one electron. The number of electrons per shell of potassium(K) is 2, 8, 8, 1. The electron configuration of potassium(K) through the sub-orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1.

Step-3: Determining the valence shell(orbit) and calculate total electrons

The third step is to diagnose the valence shell(orbit). The last shell after the electron configuration is called the valence shell(orbit). The total number of electrons in a valence shell(last shell) is called a valence electron.

The electron configuration of potassium(K) shows that the last shell(orbit) of potassium has one electron. Therefore, the valence electron of potassium(K) is one. In this way, the valence electrons of all the elements can be determined.

Determination of the valency(valence) of potassium(K)

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency(valence). The number of unpaired electrons in the last orbital of an element is the valency(valence) of that element.

How many valence electrons does potassium have
Valency and valence electron of potassium

The electron configuration of potassium is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s1. The electron configuration of potassium(K) shows that there is one unpaired electron in the last orbital(4s1) of sodium. Therefore, the valency(valence) of potassium(K) is 1.

How many valence electrons does potassium ion(K+) have?

After the electron configuration, the last shell of the potassium(K) atom has an electron. In this case, the valency of potassium(K) is 1. We know the details about this. The elements that have 1, 2, or three electrons in the last shell(orbit) donate the electrons in the last shell during bond formation.

The elements that form bonds by donating electrons are called cations. That is, potassium(K) is a cation element. Potassium donates the electron of the last shell to form bonds and turns into a potassium ion(K+).

K – e → K+

The electron configuration of potassium ions(K+) is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6. The electron configuration of potassium-ion shows that potassium ions have three shells and last shell has eight electrons.

The electron configuration shows that the potassium atom has acquired the electron configuration of argon. That is, in this case, the valence(valency) of the potassium-ion is +1. Since the last shell(orbit) of a potassium-ion has eight electrons, the valence electrons of potassium-ion(K+) are eight.

Compound formation of potassium

Potassium participates in the formation of bonds through its valence electron. We know that the valence electron in potassium(K) is one. This valence electron participates in the formation of bonds with atoms of other elements.

The electron configuration of oxygen shows that the valence electrons of oxygen are six. The potassium atom donates its valence electron to the oxygen atom and the oxygen atom receives that electron.

As a result, potassium(K) acquires the electron configuration of argon, and oxygen atom acquires the electron configuration of neon. Oxygen and potassium atoms form potassium oxide(K2O) bonds through electron exchange. Potassium oxide(K2O) is ionic bonding.

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