How many valence electrons does silicon(Si) have?

The 14th element of the periodic table is silicon. Silicon is a semiconductor material and, its symbol is ‘Si’. Silicon participates in the formation of bonds through its valence electrons. This article discusses in detail the valence electrons of silicon(Si).

What are the valence electrons of silicon(Si)?

The second element of group-14 is silicon, which is a semiconductor material. Silicon materials are used in various electronic devices. Silicon has to be doped for use in electronics devices. During doping, an electron is attached to or removed from the valence electron of silicon.

The valence electron is the total number of electrons in the last orbit(shell). The total number of electrons in the last shell(orbit) after the electron configuration of silicon is called the valence electrons of silicon(Si).

valence electrons of silicon
Valence electrons of silicon

The valence electrons determine the properties of the element and participate in the formation of bonds. The fourteenth element in the periodic table is silicon. That is, the atom of the silicon element has a total of fourteen electrons.

The electron configuration of silicon shows that the last shell(orbit) of silicon has a total of four electrons. That is, we can easily say that the valence electrons of silicon are four. There is an article on this site detailing the electron configuration of silicon you can read it if you want.

How many electrons and protons does silicon(Si) have?

The nucleus is located in the center of the atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The atomic number of silicon(Si) is 14. The atomic number is the number of protons.

That is, the number of protons in silicon(Si) is fourteen. Electrons equal to protons are located in a circular shell outside the nucleus. That is, a silicon atom has a total of fourteen electrons.

How to determine the valence electron of silicon(Si)?

Now we will know how to easily determine the valence electrons of silicon(Si). The valence electron has to be determined by following a few steps. The electron configuration is one of them. It is not possible to determine the valence electron without electron configuration.

Knowing the electron configuration in the right way, it is very easy to determine the valence electrons of all the elements. There is an article published on this site detailing the electron configuration, you can read it if you want. However, this article briefly discusses electron configuration.

Scientist Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit(shell). He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path.

These circular paths are called orbit(shell). These orbits are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit(shell), L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit(shell). The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now,

n = 1 for K orbit. The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.

For L orbit, n = 2. The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.

n=3 for M orbit. The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 18 electrons.

electron configuration
Electron Configuration

In addition to this method, electron configuration can be done through sub-orbits. The German physicist Aufbau first proposed an idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level.

These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’. The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

However, valence electrons can be easily identified by arranging electrons according to the Bohr principle. Now we will learn how to determine the valence electron of silicon(Si).

Step 1 – 1st we need to know the total number of electrons in the silicon(Si) atom. To know the number of electrons, you need to know the number of protons in silicon. And to know the number of protons, you need to know the atomic number of the silicon element.

Position of silicon(Si) in the periodic table
Position of silicon(Si) in the periodic table

To know the atomic number we need to take the help of a periodic table. It is necessary to know the atomic number of silicon(Si) elements from the periodic table. The atomic number is the number of protons. And electrons equal to protons are located outside the nucleus.

That is, we can finally say that there are electrons equal to the atomic number in the silicon atom. From the periodic table, we see that the atomic number of silicon is 14. That is, a silicon(Si) atom has a total of fourteen electrons.

Step 2 – Step-2 is very important. In this step, the electrons of silicon(Si) have to be arranged. We know that silicon atoms have a total of fourteen electrons. The electron configuration of the silicon shows that there are two electrons in the K shell, eight in the L shell, and four in the M shell(orbit).

silicon electron configuration
Silicon electron configuration

That is, the first shell of silicon(Si) has two electrons, the second shell has eight electrons and the 3rd shell(orbit) has four electrons. The electron configuration of silicon(Si) through the sub-orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2.

Step 3 – The third step is to diagnose the valence shell(orbit). The last shell after the electron configuration is called the valence shell(orbit). The total number of electrons in a valence shell is called a valence electron.

The electron configuration of silicon(Si) shows that the last shell of silicon has four electrons. Therefore, the valence electrons of silicon(Si) are four. In this way, the valence electrons of all the elements can be determined.

Determination of the valency of silicon(Si)

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency(valence). The number of unpaired electrons in the last orbit of an element is the valency(valence) of that element.

As we know, the electron configuration of silicon atoms is normally 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p2. Valence(valency) is determined from the electron configuration of the element in the excited state.

Valency and valence electrons of silicon(Si)
Valency and valence electrons of silicon(Si)

The electron configuration of silicon in excited state is Si*(14) = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 3px1 3py1 3pz1. Here, the electron configuration of silicon(Si) shows that four unpaired electrons exist. Therefore, the valency(valence) of the silicon(Si) atom is 4.

How many valence electrons does silicon ion have?

After the electron configuration, the last shell(orbit) of the silicon atom has four electrons. In this case, the valence(valency) and valence electrons of silicon are 4.

Elements that have four electrons in their last orbit cannot receive or reject electrons to complete their octave. These elements have to share electrons with other elements to complete the octave.

As silicon has four electrons in its last orbit, silicon completes the octave by sharing four more electrons with another element. As silicon has four electrons in its last orbit, silicon completes the octave by sharing four more electrons with another element.

As a result, silicon fills its octave and comes to a stable state. We see that silicon acquires the electron configuration of the inert gas argon. From the above discussion, we can say that the valence electrons of silicon ions are eight.

Compound formation of silicon(Si)

Silicon(Si) participates in the formation of bonds through its valence electrons. We know that the valence electrons in silicon(Si) are four. This valence electron participates in the formation of bonds with atoms of other elements.

Silicon atoms form bonds by sharing electrons with oxygen atoms. The electron configuration of oxygen shows that the valence electrons of oxygen are six. Two oxygen atoms and one silicon atom make Silicon dioxide(SiO2) compounds by sharing electrons.

As a result, the silicon atom completes its octave and acquires the electron configuration of the argon. On the other hand, oxygen acquires the electron configuration of neon.

Therefore, a silicon atom shares electrons with two oxygen atoms to form the silicon dioxide(SiO2) compound through a covalent bond. Silicon dioxide(SiO2) is a covalent bond.

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