# How many valence electrons does aluminum(Al) have?

The thirteenth element of the periodic table is aluminum. The element of group-13 is aluminum and its symbol is Al. Aluminum forms bonds through its valence electrons. This article discusses in detail the valence electrons of aluminum.

## What are the valence electrons of aluminum(Al)?

The second element in group-13 is aluminum(Al). The valence electron is the total number of electrons in the last orbit. The total number of electrons in the last shell after the electron configuration of aluminum is called the valence electrons of aluminum(Al).

The valence electrons determine the properties of the element and participate in the formation of bonds. The thirteenth element in the periodic table is aluminum(Al). That is, the atom of the aluminum element has a total of thirteen electrons.

The electron configuration of the aluminum shows that the last shell(orbit) of aluminum(Al) has a total of three electrons. That is, we can easily say that the valence electrons of aluminum(Al) are three. There is an article on this site detailing the electron configuration of aluminum(Al), you can read it if you want.

## How many electrons and protons does aluminum(Al) have?

The nucleus is located in the center of the atom. Protons and neutrons are located in the nucleus. The atomic number of aluminum(Al) is 13. The atomic number is the number of protons.

That is, the number of protons in aluminum(Al) is thirteen. Electrons equal to protons are located in a circular shell outside the nucleus. That is, an aluminum atom has a total of thirteen electrons.

## How to determine the valence electron of aluminum(Al)?

Now we will know how to easily determine the valence electrons of aluminum(Al). The valence electron has to be determined by following a few steps. The electron configuration is one of them. It is not possible to determine the valence electron without electron configuration.

Knowing the electron configuration in the right way, it is very easy to determine the valence electrons of all the elements. There is an article published on this site detailing the electron configuration, you can read it if you want. However, this article briefly discusses electron configuration.

Scientist Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit(shell). He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there. The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit(shell). These orbits are expressed by n. [ n = 1,2 3 4 . . .]

K is the name of the first orbit(shell), L is the second, M is the third, N is the name of the fourth orbit(shell). The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n2. [Where, n = 1,2 3,4. . .]

Now,

• n = 1 for K orbit. The electron holding capacity of K orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 12 = 2 electrons.
• For L orbit, n = 2. The electron holding capacity of the L orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 22 = 8 electrons.
• n=3 for M orbit. The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n2 = 2 × 32 = 18 electrons.

In addition to this method, electron configuration can be done through sub-orbits. The German physicist Aufbau first proposed an idea of electron configuration through sub-orbits. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level.

These sub-orbitals are expressed by ‘l’. The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital. These orbitals are named s, p, d, f. The electron holding capacity of these orbitals is s = 2, p = 6, d = 10 and f = 14.

However, valence electrons can be easily identified by arranging electrons according to the Bohr principle. Now we will learn how to determine the valence electron of aluminum(Al).

### Step-1: Determining the total number of electrons

1st we need to know the total number of electrons in the aluminum(Al) atom. To know the number of electrons, you need to know the number of protons in aluminum. And to know, the number of protons, you need to know the atomic number of the aluminum element.

To know the atomic number we need to take the help of a periodic table. It is necessary to know the atomic number of aluminum(Al) elements from the periodic table. The atomic number is the number of protons. And electrons equal to protons are located outside the nucleus.

That is, we can finally say that there are electrons equal to the atomic number in the aluminum atom. From the periodic table, we see that the atomic number of aluminum is 13. That is, an aluminum(Al) atom has a total of thirteen electrons.

### Step-2: Need to do electron configuration

Step-2 is very important. In this step, the electrons of aluminum(Al) have to be arranged. We know that aluminum atoms have a total of thirteen electrons. The electron configuration of the aluminum shows that there are two electrons in the K shell, eight in the L shell, and three in the M shell(orbit).

That is, the first shell of aluminum(Al) has two electrons, the second shell has eight electrons and the 3rd shell(orbit) has three electrons. The electron configuration of aluminum(Al) through the sub-orbit is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1.

### Step-3: Determining the valence shell(orbit) and calculate total electrons

The third step is to diagnose the valence shell(orbit). The last shell after the electron configuration is called the valence shell(orbit). The total number of electrons in a valence shell is called a valence electron.

The electron configuration of aluminum(Al) shows that the last shell of aluminum has three electrons. Therefore, the valence electrons of aluminum are three. In this way, the valence electrons of all the elements can be determined.

## Determination of the valency of aluminum(Al)

The ability of one atom of an element to join another atom during the formation of a molecule is called valency(valence). There are some rules for diagnosing valency. The number of electrons in an unpaired state in the last orbital after the electron configuration of an atom is called the valency(valence) of that element.

The electron configuration of aluminum(Al) is 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3s1. The electron configuration of the aluminum shows that it has three unpaired electrons in the last orbital. Therefore, the valency(valence) of aluminum(Al) is 3.

## How many valence electrons does aluminum ion(Al3+) have?

After the electron configuration, the last shell of the aluminum atom has three electrons. In this case, the valence(valency) of aluminum is 3. We know the details about this. The elements that have 1, 2, or three electrons in the last shell(orbit) donate the electrons in the last shell during bond formation.

The elements that form bonds by donating electrons are called cations. That is, aluminum is a cation element. Aluminum donates the electron of the last shell to form bonds and turns into aluminum ions.

Al – 3e → Al3+

The electron configuration of aluminum ions is 1s2 2s2 2p6. The electron configuration of aluminum-ion shows that aluminum ions have only two shells and that shell has eight electrons. The electron configuration shows that the aluminum atom has acquired the electron configuration of neon.

That is, in this case, the valence(valency) of the aluminum-ion is +3. Since the last shell(orbit) of an aluminum-ion has eight electrons, the valence electrons of aluminum-ion are eight.

## Compound formation of aluminum

Aluminum participates in the formation of bonds through its valence electrons. We know that the valence electrons in aluminum(Al) are three. This valence electron participates in the formation of bonds with atoms of other elements.

The electron configuration of oxygen shows that the valence electrons of oxygen are six. The aluminum(Al) atom donates its valence electrons to the oxygen atom and the oxygen atom receives those electrons.

As a result, oxygen acquires the electron configuration of neon, and aluminum atoms also acquire the electron configuration of neon. Aluminum oxide(Al2O3) is formed by the exchange of electrons between two atoms of aluminum and three atoms of oxygen. Aluminum oxide (Al2O3) is ionic bonding.