# Complete Electron Configuration for Gold (Au)

Gold is the 79th element in the periodic table and its symbol is ‘Au’. Gold is a classified transition metal element. In this article, I have discussed in detail how to easily write the complete electron configuration of gold.

## What is the electron configuration of gold?

The total number of electrons in gold is seventy-nine. These electrons are arranged according to specific rules in different orbitals.

The arrangement of electrons in gold in specific rules in different orbits and orbitals is called the electron configuration of gold.

The electron configuration of gold is [Xe] 4f^{14} 5d^{10} 6s^{1}, if the electron arrangement is through orbitals. Electron configuration can be done in two ways.

- Electron configuration through orbit (Bohr principle)
- Electron configuration through orbital (Aufbau principle)

Electron configuration through orbitals follows different principles. For example Aufbau principle, Hund’s principle, and Pauli’s exclusion principle.

## Gold atom electron configuration through orbit

Scientist Niels Bohr was the first to give an idea of the atom’s orbit. He provided a model of the atom in 1913. The complete idea of the orbit is given there.

The electrons of the atom revolve around the nucleus in a certain circular path. These circular paths are called orbit(shell). These orbits are expressed by n. [n = 1,2,3,4 . . . The serial number of the orbit]

K is the name of the first orbit, L is the second, M is the third, and N is the name of the fourth orbit. The electron holding capacity of each orbit is 2n^{2}.

Shell Number (n) | Shell Name | Electrons Holding Capacity (2n^{2}) |

1 | K | 2 |

2 | L | 8 |

3 | M | 18 |

4 | N | 32 |

For example,

- n = 1 for K orbit.

The maximum electron holding capacity in K orbit is 2n^{2}= 2 × 1^{2}= 2. - For L orbit, n = 2.

The maximum electron holding capacity in L orbit is 2n^{2}= 2 × 2^{2}= 8. - n=3 for M orbit.

The maximum electron holding capacity in M orbit is 2n^{2}= 2 × 3^{2 }= 18. - n=4 for N orbit.

The maximum electron holding capacity in N orbit is 2n^{2}= 2 × 4^{2}= 32.

Therefore, the maximum electron holding capacity in the first shell is two, the second shell is eight and the 3rd shell can have a maximum of eighteen electrons.

The atomic number is the number of electrons in that element. The atomic number of gold is 79. That is, the number of electrons in gold is seventy-nine.

Therefore, a gold atom will have two electrons in the first shell, eight in the 2nd orbit, eighteen electrons in the 3rd shell, and thirty-two in the 4th shell.

According to Bohr’s formula, the fifth shell will have nineteen electrons but the fifth shell of gold will have eighteen electrons and the remaining one electron will be in the sixth shell.

Therefore, the order of the number of electrons in each shell of the gold(Au) atom is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1. Electrons can be arranged correctly through orbits from elements 1 to 18.

The electron configuration of an element with an atomic number greater than 18 cannot be properly determined according to the Bohr atomic model. The electron configuration of all the elements can be done through the orbital diagram.

## Electron configuration of gold through orbital

Atomic energy shells are subdivided into sub-energy levels. These sub-energy levels are also called orbital. The most probable region of electron rotation around the nucleus is called the orbital.

The sub-energy levels depend on the azimuthal quantum number. It is expressed by ‘l’. The value of ‘l’ is from 0 to (n – 1). The sub-energy levels are known as s, p, d, and f.

Orbit Number | Value of ‘l’ | Number of subshells | Number of orbital | Subshell name | Electrons holding capacity | Electron configuration |

1 | 0 | 1 | 1 | 1s | 2 | 1s^{2} |

2 | 0 1 | 2 | 1 3 | 2s 2p | 2 6 | 2s^{2} 2p^{6} |

3 | 0 1 2 | 3 | 1 3 5 | 3s 3p 3d | 2 6 10 | 3s^{2} 3p^{6} 3d^{10} |

4 | 0 1 2 3 | 4 | 1 3 5 7 | 4s 4p 4d 4f | 2 6 10 14 | 4s^{2} 4p^{6} 4d^{10} 4f^{14} |

For example,

- If n = 1,

(n – 1) = (1–1) = 0

Therefore, the value of ‘l’ is 0. So, the sub-energy level is 1s. - If n = 2,

(n – 1) = (2–1) = 1.

Therefore, the value of ‘l’ is 0, 1. So, the sub-energy levels are 2s, and 2p. - If n = 3,

(n – 1) = (3–1) = 2.

Therefore, the value of ‘l’ is 0, 1, 2. So, the sub-energy levels are 3s, 3p, and 3d. - If n = 4,

(n – 1) = (4–1) = 3

Therefore, the value of ‘l’ is 0, 1, 2, 3. So, the sub-energy levels are 4s, 4p, 4d, and 4f. - If n = 5,

(n – 1) = (n – 5) = 4.

Therefore, l = 0,1,2,3,4. The number of sub-shells will be 5 but 4s, 4p, 4d, and 4f in these four subshells it is possible to arrange the electrons of all the elements of the periodic table.

Subshell name | Name source | Value of ‘l’ | Value of ‘m’(0 to ± l) | Number of orbital (2l+1) | Electrons holding capacity2(2l+1) |

s | Sharp | 0 | 0 | 1 | 2 |

p | Principal | 1 | −1, 0, +1 | 3 | 6 |

d | Diffuse | 2 | −2, −1, 0, +1, +2 | 5 | 10 |

f | Fundamental | 3 | −3, −2, −1, 0, +1, +2, +3 | 7 | 14 |

The orbital number of the s-subshell is one, three in the p-subshell, five in the d-subshell and seven in the f-subshell. Each orbital can have a maximum of two electrons.

The sub-energy level ‘s’ can hold a maximum of two electrons, ‘p’ can hold a maximum of six electrons, ‘d’ can hold a maximum of ten electrons, and ‘f’ can hold a maximum of fourteen electrons.

Aufbau is a German word, which means building up. The main proponents of this principle are scientists Niels Bohr and Pauli. The Aufbau method is to do electron configuration through the sub-energy level.

The Aufbau principle is that the electrons present in the atom will first complete the lowest energy orbital and then gradually continue to complete the higher energy orbital.

The energy of an orbital is calculated from the value of the principal quantum number ‘n’ and the azimuthal quantum number ‘l’. The orbital for which the value of (n + l) is lower is the low energy orbital and the electron will enter that orbital first.

Orbital | Orbit (n) | Azimuthal quantum number (l) | Orbital energy (n + l) |

3d | 3 | 2 | 5 |

4s | 4 | 0 | 4 |

Here, the energy of 4s orbital is less than that of 3d. So, the electron will enter the 4s orbital first and enter the 3d orbital when the 4s orbital is full. The method of entering electrons into orbitals through the Aufbau principle is 1s 2s 2p 3s 3p 4s 3d 4p 5s 4d 5p 6s 4f 5d 6p 7s 5f 6d.

The first two electrons of gold enter the 1s orbital. The s-orbital can have a maximum of two electrons. Therefore, the next two electrons enter the 2s orbital. The p-orbital can have a maximum of six electrons.

So, the next six electrons enter the 2p orbital. The second orbit is now full. So, the remaining electrons will enter the third orbit. Then the two electrons will enter the 3s orbital and the next six electrons will be in the 3p orbital of the third orbit.

The 3p orbital is now full. So, the next two electrons will enter the 4s orbital and ten electrons will enter the 3d orbital. The 3d orbital is now full. So, the next six electrons enter the 4p orbital.

Then the next ten electrons will enter the 4d orbital. The 4d orbital is now full. So, the six electrons enter the 5p orbital and two electrons will enter the 6s orbital. Then next fourteen electrons will enter the 4f orbital.

The 4f orbital is now full of electrons. So, the remaining nine electrons will enter the 5d orbital. But the orbital wants to be half-filled or full-filled by electrons.

Because the atom may be in a more stable state when the orbital is half-filled and full-filled. Therefore, an electron in the 6s orbital jumps into the 5d orbital and completes a full-filled 5d orbital.

So, an electron enters the 6s orbital and ten electrons will enter the 5d orbital. Therefore, the gold full electron configuration will be 1s^{2} 2s^{2} 2p^{6} 3s^{2} 3p^{6} 3d^{10} 4s^{2} 4p^{6} 4d^{10} 4f^{14} 5s^{2} 5p^{6} 5d^{10} 6s^{1}.

Note:The abbreviated electron configuration of gold is [Xe] 4f^{14}5d^{10}6s^{1}. When writing an electron configuration, you have to write serially.

## Video for Au Electron Configuration (Gold)

## FAQs

### What is the symbol for gold?

**Ans:**The symbol for gold is ‘Au’.### How many electrons does gold have?

**Ans:**79 electrons.### How do you write the full electron configuration for gold?

**Ans:**The full electron configuration for gold is 1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}4d^{10}4f^{14}5s^{2}5p^{6}5d^{10}6s^{1}.### What is the valency of gold?

**Ans:**The valency of gold is 1 and 3.### How many orbitals does gold have?

**Ans:**40 orbitals. The orbital number of the s-subshell is one, three in the p-subshell, five in the d-subshell and seven in the f-subshell. Each orbital can have a maximum of two electrons.### How many valence electrons does gold have?

**Ans:**One valence electron. The last shell of gold has an electron. Therefore, the valence electrons of bromine are one.### What is the electron configuration of a gold atom in the ground state?

**Ans:**The electron configuration of a gold atom in the ground state is 1s^{2}2s^{2}2p^{6}3s^{2}3p^{6}3d^{10}4s^{2}4p^{6}4d^{10}4f^{14}5s^{2}5p^{6}5d^{10}6s^{1}.### How many electron shells does gold have?

**Ans:**Gold has a total of six electron shells. The order of the number of electrons in each shell of the gold(Au) atom is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1.### How many unpaired electrons does gold have?

**Ans:**One unpaired electron. Because the electron configuration of the gold atom is [Xe] 4f^{14}5d^{10}6s^{1}. Here, the 4f orbital is full of fourteen electrons and the 5d orbital full of ten electrons. Only 6s orbital has one unpaired electron.### How many electrons are in gold’s 5p orbitals?

**Ans:**Gold has six electrons in its 5p orbital.### How many shells does gold have?

**Ans:**Gold has a total of six shells. The order of the number of electrons in each shell of the gold atom is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1.### How many energy levels does gold (au) have?

**Ans:**Gold has a total of six energy levels. The order of the number of electrons in each shell of the gold atom is 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 1.